GS Paper II Mains - 2019- Question Analysis

  • Despite Consistent experience of high growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive

Mains Assignment Question

Despite Consistent experience of high growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (150 Words) 

Subjects : Economic-Social Development

Answer Approach :
  • Introduction: Present state of Indian economy and its performance in various human development indices.
  • Body: Reasons for lack of balanced and inclusive growth
  • Conclusion: Solution in brief and way forward

Nikhil J

 
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Although India is one of the fastest growing economies, the growth has not necessarily been inclusive. This is corroborated by India's poor ranking in indices like Human Development Index (HDI) and Global Hunger Index (GHI).

Reasons for lack of inclusive growth in India.

1. Inefficient public health care - As a result of which the marginalized sections remain vulnerable to diseases and epidemics thereby lowering their life expectancy and productivity. 

2. Lack of access to quality education - Education has multiplier and inter-generational effects on improving livelihoods of the poor. Lack of which will cause the poor to perpetually remain poor.

3. High hunger and low nutrition levels - Resulting in high infant mortality, maternal mortality, stunting rate etc.,

4. Insufficient skill set among poor youth - Low employment levels.

5. Gender Inequality - Empowering women can have spill over benefits in the family.

6. Agrarian distress - Pitiable conditions of farmers especially small and marginal farmers.

7. Lack of financial inclusion and literacy - susceptibility to shock expenditures on health and other emergencies.

The government has taken several measures to address the above shortcomings under the Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas initiative through progammes like Ayushman Bharat,Poshan Abhiyaan, Jan Dan Yojana etc., However new challenges in the form of digital divide and environmental degradation pose threats to India's goal of achieving balanced and inclusive growth. Effective implementation of the above mentioned programmes and steps to tackle new threats is therefore the need of the hour.

 
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Although India is one of the fastest growing economies, the growth has not necessarily been inclusive. This is corroborated by India's poor ranking in indices like Human Development Index (HDI) and Global Hunger Index (GHI). (Your Introduction is good and appropriate, it briefly elaborates the question statement.)

Reasons for lack of inclusive growth in India.

  1. Inefficient public health care - As a result of which the marginalized sections remain vulnerable to diseases and epidemics thereby lowering their life expectancy and productivity. (There is no fact and figure to emphasize your view)
  2. Lack of access to quality education - Education has multiplier and inter-generational effects on improving livelihoods of the poor. Lack of which will cause the poor to perpetually remain poor.(Again there is lack of data and mention of any report/data/figure. You could have mentioned here India’s poor allocation of budget % for education etc.)
  3. High hunger and low nutrition levels - Resulting in high infant mortality, maternal mortality, stunting rate etc., (This point can be merged with Point No.2)
  4. Insufficient skill set among poor youth - Low employment levels. (No Data. You can mention here data by NSSO, Jobless growth etc.)
  5. Gender Inequality - Empowering women can have spill over benefits in the family. (substantiate your view by providing data like Gender Gap Report etc.)
  6. Agrarian distress - Pitiable conditions of farmers especially small and marginal farmers. (Data of Poor land Ownership, Credit Suisse Report etc should be mentioned)
  7. Lack of financial inclusion and literacy - susceptibility to shock expenditures on health and other emergencies. (Date related to these point should be mentioned. )

The government has taken several measures to address the above shortcomings under the Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas initiative through progammes like Ayushman Bharat,Poshan Abhiyaan, Jan Dan Yojana etc., However new challenges in the form of digital divide and environmental degradation pose threats to India's goal of achieving balanced and inclusive growth. Effective implementation of the above mentioned programmes and steps to tackle new threats is therefore the need of the hour.

(Conclusion is good in direction but is lengthy. You could have separated Way forward and suggest measures separately. Try to write last part of the answer in more structured way.)

Overall Feedback:

  • Introduction of answer is good both in terms of content and direction.
  • Language is simple and effective.
  • Style of writing is loosely constructed; more organised and compact style of writing is required. That's why you have crossed the words limit by atleast 100 words.
  • Your points are good but are described in a very general way, there is no fact and figure which can substantiate your arguments.
  • More in-depth analysis (with data) is required as answer lacks reliability.
  • Direction and hit on demand is perfect.

Please refer to model answer to know which other reports can be mentioned here.

Punit Tiwari

India despite its high GDP growth rate in the past decade i.e in 2000-2008 GDP growth rate of around 8% and current decade GDP growth rate of around 6%+ has still not been able to explore its human capital capacity to its max which is evident from United Nations Development Program's Human capital Index where India has scored 129 out of 189 nations while  on the Ease Of Doing Business it had scored soaring 14 places form 77th rank in 2018 to 63rd rank in 2019.

Issues for low growth rate:

1. According to the Employment growth rate given for period 2004-05 to 2011-12 by NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) has been 0.18 where GDP growth rate given for the same period as given by CSO (Central Statistical Office) has been around 9.08%. Thus according to this for the period of 2004-05 to 2011-12 for every percentage growth rate there has been only 0.02% of employement growth rate.

Unemployement @6.1% currently. Also very low women participation of on 24% in the workforce.

2. 44% of Indian household suffer from Multi-dimentional Poverty according to Oxford and UNDP (United Nations Development Program). Also India ranks 103rd in Global Hunger Index 2019.

3. 52% of married womens in India suffer from anemia. This is major cause of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) of the new borns.

4.Also due to this under-nourishment starts from the womb itself and the lack of child development

India has been also facing hunger problem thus every 2 in 3 child in India is malnourished.

5. According to Labour Force Survey of NSSO 2011-12 out of 100% of working population in India 86% have education >= class 12.

Out of this 86% population only 4% have acquired technical due to work but they don't have any professional qualification.

6. India has a 14% of graduate workforce out of which only 3 % have technical knowledge (2% Engineers + 1% Doctors).

Thus in all India has only 7% of technically skilled workforce. 

Way Forward:

1. More technical programs like Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) for providing certificates to skilled but uncertified technical professionals and National Skill Quality Framework (NSQF) for technically certified people for improving their skill. Also various apprenticeship programs.

2. Promotion of schemes like Disha and Kiran for enhancing women participation in workforce.

3. Focus on Public Distribution System and adoption of Chhattisgarh model for digital PDS system.

4. More focus on National Nutrition Mission , Matru Vanada Yojana and Janani Suraksha Yojana and distribution of iron and folic acid tablets.

 5. Introduction of Soft Skills in curriculum in order to enhance employability of graduates.

 

Thus, India with its huge amount of working class population has a rich source of workforce and predicted highest population in 2050, which if skilled can do wonders like Japan where even though no major natural resources it has become one of the booming economy just because of it skilled population. Thus,India has a huge opportunity in this front.

 

 

Feedback:
Rating :
★★★★★★★★★★ ★★★★★★★★★★
(5/10)

India despite its high GDP growth rate in the past decade i.ein 2000-2008 GDP growth rate of around 8% and current decade  (can be eliminated in order to reduce words limit) GDP growth rate of around 6%+ has still not been able to explore its human capital capacity to its max which is evident from United Nations Development Program's Human capital Index where India has scored 129 out of 189 nations while  on the Ease Of Doing Business it had scored soaring 14 places form 77th rank in 2018 to 63rd rank in 2019. (Introduction is very good and is in direction of the demand of the question. Please try to make it bit short.)

Issues for low growth rate:

  1. According to the Employment growth rate given for period 2004-05 to 2011-12 by NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) has been 0.18 where GDP growth rate given for the same period as given by CSO (Central Statistical Office) has been around 9.08%.(Try to omit out few words to reduce words limit. Data should be there but reference years or period can be expressed in short) Thus, according to this for the period of 2004-05 to 2011-12 for every percentage growth rate there has been only 0.02% of employement growth rate.

Unemployement @6.1% currently. Also, very low women participation of on 24% in the workforce. (Point is not clear, though we understand that it is written in right direction)

  1. 44% of Indian household suffer from Multi-dimentional Povertyaccording to Oxford and UNDP (United Nations Development Program). Also India ranks 103rd in Global Hunger Index 2019.
  2. 52% of married womens in India suffer from anemia. This is major cause of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)of the new borns.

4.Also due to this under-nourishment starts from the womb itself and the lack of child development

India has been also facing hunger problem thus every 2 in 3 child in India is malnourished.

  1. According to Labour Force Survey of NSSO 2011-12out of 100% of working population in India 86% have education >= class 12. (Good presentation of facts)

Out of this 86% population (Club this with above lines) only 4% have acquired technical (Skill/knowledge word is missing) due to work but they don't have any professional qualification.

  1. India has a 14% of graduate workforce out of which only 3 % have technical knowledge (2% Engineers + 1% Doctors).

Thus in all India has only 7% of technically skilled workforce. 

Way Forward:

  1. More technical programs like Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL)for providing certificates to skilled but uncertified technical professionals and National Skill Quality Framework (NSQF)for technically certified people for improving their skill. Also various apprenticeship programs.
  2. Promotion of schemes like Disha and Kiranfor enhancing women participation in workforce.
  3. Focus on Public Distribution System and adoption of Chhattisgarh model for digital PDS system.
  4. More focus on National Nutrition Mission, Matru Vanada Yojana and Janani Suraksha Yojana and distribution of iron and folic acid tablets. (Instead of more focus we can call for better implementation of schemes, which is the need of the hour)
  5. Introduction of Soft Skills in curriculum in order to enhance employability of graduates. (Merge this point with the first point )

 

Thus, India with its huge amount of working class population (being country of youngs)has huge a rich source of workforce and predicted highest population in 2050,(Can be eliminated) which if skilled can do wonders like Japan where even though no(word ‘without’ can be used) major natural resources (Few words are missing here) it has become one of the booming economy just because of it skilled population. Thus, India has a huge opportunity in this front.

 

Overall Feedback:

  • Your way of writing and presenting the facts and figures is very good.
  • Language is simple and effective.
  • You need to learn how to write in compact and concise manner as your have crossed the words limit excessively.
  • In order to reduce words you can reduce few facts and figure in your content part and example in your Way Forward.
  • Last part of the answer is good in content but is not structured well. You can cut short it to keep answer within words limit.
  • Apart from examples of schemes and extension of schemes, better and effective implementation of schemes should one of the aspects in way forward.
  • You deserve good marks but will score less just because you have crossed the words limit with huge margin.

All the best!

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Description

Higher GDP growth rates in India has not translated into improvement in human development indicators as evident in its lower ranking in HDI, GHI, HCI etc. Thus, there is poor correlation between higher GDP growth rates and human development. Reasons for Lack of Balanced and Inclusive Growth

  • Poverty eradication programs: poor implementation and corruption
  • Unemployment, underemployment and jobless growth negatively affecting demographic dividend and a having spiraling effect on poverty
  • Unequal distribution of wealth: is increasing inequality
  • Unbalanced regional development: increasing the existing disparity among and within the states
  • Environment degradation: adversely affecting the farmers and the vulnerable sections
  • Insufficient funding and innovation: in education, health and other social indicators leading to their abysmal performance.

Government programs like Ayushman Bharat, Skill India etc. should be implemented in letter and spirit. This will help India to achieve its SGD’s and fulfill the values enshrined in the constitution.

The need is to address the above problems with a focused approach for a balanced, inclusive and sustainable growth.

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