GS Paper III Mains 2019 Question Analysis

  • Cross-border movement of insurgents is only One Security challenges to policing the border in North-East India. Examine various challenges currently emanating across the India-Myanmar border . Discuss the steps to counter the challenges.

Mains Assignment Question

Cross-border movement of insurgents is only one of the several security challenges facing the policing of the border in North-East India. Examine the various challenges currently emanating across the India-Myanmar border. Also discuss the steps to counter the challenges. (250 Words)

Subjects : Internal Security

Answer Approach :
  • Introduction: Highlight the susceptibility of Indo-Myanmar border to insurgency.
  • Body:
    • Mention the challenges in security across the India Myanmar border like smuggling, trafficking, etc.
    • Highlight the steps that are required to handle these issues.
  • Conclusion: Show how handling the problem of insurgency can be a big boost to the development of the North-Eastern States.

Lavanya

Four states of India (Arunachal pradesh ,Nagaland,Manipur, Mizoram) shares border with Myanmar.

There are various challenges along India Myanmar border which are as following-

Organised crime-smuggling of drug especially opium from golden Triangle, human trafficking

Rohingyas issue-prosecuted minority of Myanmar consistently entering into North eastern states, increasing security threat. 

Insurgency-NSCN-k fraction of Naga active in Myanmar , pose security threat. 

Underdevelopment-due to geographically marginalised from rest of india

 Although there are various security challenges, it can resolve through following menthod

1.Using smart technology in border patrolling. 

2-Peace negotiation with Naga

3-Constant dialogue surrender with government of Myanmar and Bangladesh to resolve rohingya issue. 

4-Comprensive integrated management of border

  India and Myanmar have historic, cultural and strategic relationship, which need to strengthen through India's act east policy. 

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Four states of India (Arunachal pradesh ,Nagaland,Manipur, Mizoram) shares border with Myanmar. (You could write a better introduction by mentioning any recent incident/ activity or by writing about any recent bilateral agreement/meeting to establish peace along the border.)

There are various challenges along India Myanmar border which are as following-

1) Organised crime-smuggling of drug especially opium from golden Triangle, human trafficking and smuggling of gold 

2) Rohingyas issue-prosecuted minority of Myanmar consistently entering into North eastern states, increasing security threat. (Good)

3) Insurgency-NSCN-k fraction of Naga active in Myanmar , pose security threat.(Mention separatist activities also) 

4) Underdevelopment-due to geographically marginalised from rest of india (Your point is good but still we need to be careful about demand of the question as question itself has given us the direction that we need to write about the challenges posed to 'the policing of the border in North-East India')

 Although there are various security challenges, it can resolve through following menthod (method).

1.Using smart technology in border patrolling. (Such as?? any suggestion would be better like steel fencing)

2-Peace negotiation with Naga.

3-Constant dialogue surrender with government of Myanmar and Bangladesh to resolve rohingya issue. 

4-Comprensive integrated management of border

  India and Myanmar have historic, cultural and strategic relationship, which need to strengthen through India's act east policy. (In conclusion add briefly the achievements (such as Joint operations) which we have achieved so far and then write your concluding line.)

Overall feedback:

1) Your answer is good in content and inclusion of aspects.

2) Answer is well written within words limit.

3) Examples and recent activities are missing which make answer more contemporary.

4) Introduction and conclusion can be made more relevant by incorporating the suggestions.

5) Avoid spelling mistakes which are probably typo-errors

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Note: DO NOT UPLOAD DIFFERENT PAGES OF ANSWER SEPARATELY. MAKE ONE PDF AND ENSURE VERTICAL ALIGNMENT.

Overall Feedback:

1) Your answers is good in direction and is within words limit.

2) Conceptual clarity is needed and there are some mistakes you have made such as Golden Triangle.Such mistakes will prove to be major hurdles in the way of getting good marks.

3) Always make the map in proportion to the space available, here you have made over sized map.

4) All the components of a map should be marked e.g you have not mentioned Bangladesh.

5) There are some important point missing in first part of the answer. Please read model answer and watch discussion video.

6) In second part of the answer you have not exactly written what has been asked in the question, therefore, missing the demand of the question. you are asked to write about solutions to solve these problems but you have written what we have done so far. Content orientation is required.

7) There are conceptual mistakes in the conclusion and are well highlighted, please be careful. 

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Please read the feedback provided with the third image in the series. All answer pages have been merged into one and can be accessed there.

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Overall Feedback

1) Your answer is good in content.

2) Addressing the demand of the question.

3) Presentation and style of writing is good.

3) Language is simple and easily comprehensible.

5) There are minor improvements required in nature of the points suggested.

Most of your points suggest 'unilateral view' and does not focus on 'bilateral relations'. In case of any border management, we need to engage the other country also and any step is generally taken with bilateral consent. So, before suggesting deployment of any force (like you suggested Assam rifles) or deployment any special force with modern arms, please suggest ways to increase bilateral cooperation. 

First we need to agree on some steps and then only we can take those steps. The challenge is not only to  secure our boundaries but also to maintain bilateral cooperation. 

Your answer is good, keep on writing.

All the best!

 

Ashutosh Joshi

North-East India’s border is the most challenging of all for our security forces with problems emanating from multiple sources. Cross-border movement of insurgents being an important issue, others too require equally careful attention.

Various other challenges emanating from Indo-Myanmar border

•Illegal migration: Myanmar shares a border of about 1600 km and the turbulent socio-economic conditions here result in influx of illegal migrants into India. They are perceived by the locals as a threat to their demographic composition. Eg persecution of Rohingyas is driving them into India.

•Smuggling: Being a part of golden triangle, Myanmar poses threat of drug smuggling into India. Also smuggling of weapons, cattle, fake Indian currency poses a grave threat.

•Trafficking: women from across the border are being trafficked into India.

•Terrorism: Though major threat from international terrorism emanates from Pakistan, terrorists use Myanmar border to get into India as the security set up Indo-Pak doesn’t allow them to infiltrate

 Steps to counter:

  •    Border security can be strengthened along with deploying more personnel along sensitive spots
  •    Robust intelligence sharing and cooperation with Myanmar government should be set up
  •   Engage Myanmar through diplomatic channels to bring a solution to the refugee crisis
  •  For long term solutions, India should partner with Myanmar to bring in economic development there. Development of Myanmar would also mean long lasting peace on Indian border.

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North-East India’s border is the most challenging (Not necessarily. There are different kind of challenges with different borders) of all for our security forces with problems emanating from multiple sources. Cross-border movement of insurgents being an important issue, (No need to repeat the question)others too require equally careful attention.

Various other challenges emanating from Indo-Myanmar border

•Illegal migration: Myanmar shares a border of about 1600 km and the turbulent socio-economic conditions here result in influx of illegal migrants into India. They are perceived by the locals as a threat to their demographic composition. Eg persecution of Rohingyas is driving them into India.

•Smuggling: Being a part of golden triangle, Myanmar poses threat of drug smuggling into India. Also smuggling of weapons, cattle, fake Indian currency poses a grave threat.

•Trafficking: women from across the border are being trafficked into India. (This point can be clubbed with the point written above i.e. Smuggling)

•Terrorism: Though major threat from international terrorism emanates from Pakistan, terrorists use Myanmar border to get into India as the security set up Indo-Pak doesn’t allow them to infiltrate. (This point is merely minute expansion of your first point. You can club it with the first point)

The question demands your views on 'challenges other than insurgents' so please write more challenges. Those points are already provided with suggested answer points. Please read them once 

 Steps to counter:

  •    Border security can be strengthened along with deploying more personnel along sensitive spots
  •    Robust intelligence sharing and cooperation with Myanmar government should be set up
  •   Engage Myanmar through diplomatic channels to bring a solution to the refugee crisis
  •  For long term solutions, India should partner with Myanmar to bring in economic development there. Development of Myanmar would also mean long lasting peace on Indian border.

(This part of your answer is quite good and is arranged in orderly manner.)

Overall Feedback:

1) Points are mostly good and address the demand of the question. 

2) Answer presentation and language is good and also the length of the answer is appropriate.

3) Main content body requires minor improvement.

4) last part of the answer is written well and also arranged in required manner. 

5) Overall answer is good and contains relevant point but better if you can add more aspects and examples.

 

Anitha D

Mynammar share a border with the 4 Indian states namely Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur and Mizoram.Diphu pass is a trijunction between India mynammar and China.

Due to mynammar  strategic location its posses several internal security problems

1.Due to porous border the smuggling and human trafficking has increased in a border area

2. Illegal trades

3.Illegal migration due to crisis and for livelihood

4. Passing treat to the internal security

Steps to tackle this problems

1. Conservative measures to be taken along with cooperation of mynammar goverment

2. Proper implementation of international illegal immigration law

3.restricting entries in border through proper implementation of border security forces

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Mynammar share a border with the 4 Indian states namely Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur and Mizoram.Diphu pass is a trijunction between India mynammar and China.  (Instead of giving simple geographical information, you can write here about any recent activity/happening/meeting/agreement etc to make introduction more relevant.)

Due to mynammar  strategic location its posses several internal security problems (No need to write it separately as your are already suggesting the same.)

1.Due to porous border the smuggling and human trafficking has increased in a border area

2. Illegal trades

3.Illegal migration due to crisis and for livelihood

4. Passing treat to the internal security

Steps to tackle this problems

1. Conservative measures to be taken along with cooperation of mynammar goverment (Specify the steps. Your suggestions should have something very concrete.)

2. Proper implementation of international illegal immigration law

3.restricting entries in border through proper implementation of border security forces.

Overall Feedback :

1) Your understanding of question is good.

2) Introduction and conclusion need content enrichment and  more relevancy.

3) Most of your points are general in nature and lack in substance. There is nothing concrete in suggestions. 

4) Answer does not show any linkage with current affairs. Please link it by mentioning recent developments.

5) Small changes will bring great amount of quality and relevancy in your answers.

All the best! 

Add your Answer below

Description

Indo-Myanmar has traditionally been the most susceptible for cross-border insurgency as a result of geographical contiguity, ethnic linkages across the border and free movement regime between the two countries. The cross-border insurgency has resulted in a number of security threats to India including arms smuggling, drug trafficking and gold smuggling recently.

Cross-border insurgency

Indian insurgent groups, particularly from Manipur and Nagaland, have historically found shelter in Myanmar due to geographical contiguity and ethnic linkages. These groups have set up bases in Myanmar and operating across the border to fuel secessionist movements in India posing a security threat to India. Eg: The separatist Naga insurgent group NSCN(K) has its base in Myanmar.

Arms smuggling

The insurgents have used the porous border to smuggle arms and ammunition sourced from Thailand to fuel its activities in India.

Drug Trafficking

Given the proximity to ‘Golden Triangle’ which is the global hub of drug trafficking, India-Myanmar border is vulnerable to trafficking of narcotic drugs. Further the drug trafficking has resulted in resulted in rise in drug abuse in the border states, particularly Mizoram which has also seen a rise in HIV incidence.

Gold smuggling

India is witnessing an upsurge in the gold smuggling with Indo-Myanmar border becoming the hotbed of gold smuggling contributing to 25% of all the gold smuggled in India.

Emerging security challenges

There is an increasing movement of insurgents in Myanmar towards the Indo-Myanmar border who have been targeting the Kaladhan projects which is seen as the alternative gateway for development of North-east.

The Rohingya infiltration from Myanmar to Bangladesh also poses a security threat to India. This is because the Rohingyan muslims are being exploited by anti-India radical Islamist groups like Jamat-iIslami and Jamat-i-Mujahideen in Bangladesh to destabilize peace in the region.

Way Forward

Joint-operations

India and Myanmar has been conducting joint-operations to fight the insurgents recently including the Operation Sunshine and Operation Sunrise. These efforts are welcome and should be stepped up.

Border Management

Integrated border management including border-fencing, setting up a dedicated force, Integrated Check Post at Moreh etc.

Dedicated hot line for border incursions should be set up.

Information exchange on Drug Trafficking

India and Myanmar have started coordinated efforts to fight drug trafficking including information exchange, sharing of best practices etc.

Development projects

India should step up efforts to develop the region through setting up of banks, FIIs, infrastructure so as to improve the communication in the region.

The pending projects under Kaladhan MMT, particularly the highway projects should be expedited. Myanmar has a vast resource of oil and gas and lacks expertise in prospecting and exploration. India should extend this expertise which will help in energy security for both countries.

Thus handling of insurgency in the north eastern states is crucial for the holistic development of the north eastern states.

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