GS Paper III Mains 2019 Question Analysis

  • Cross-border movement of insurgents is only One Security challenges to policing the border in North-East India. Examine various challenges currently emanating across the India-Myanmar border . Discuss the steps to counter the challenges.

Mains Assignment Question

Cross-border movement of insurgents is only one of the several security challenges facing the policing of the border in North-East India. Examine the various challenges currently emanating across the India-Myanmar border. Also discuss the steps to counter the challenges. (250 Words)

Subjects : Internal Security

Answer Approach :
  • Introduction: Highlight the susceptibility of Indo-Myanmar border to insurgency.
  • Body:
    • Mention the challenges in security across the India Myanmar border like smuggling, trafficking, etc.
    • Highlight the steps that are required to handle these issues.
  • Conclusion: Show how handling the problem of insurgency can be a big boost to the development of the North-Eastern States.

Lavanya

Four states of India (Arunachal pradesh ,Nagaland,Manipur, Mizoram) shares border with Myanmar.

There are various challenges along India Myanmar border which are as following-

Organised crime-smuggling of drug especially opium from golden Triangle, human trafficking

Rohingyas issue-prosecuted minority of Myanmar consistently entering into North eastern states, increasing security threat. 

Insurgency-NSCN-k fraction of Naga active in Myanmar , pose security threat. 

Underdevelopment-due to geographically marginalised from rest of india

 Although there are various security challenges, it can resolve through following menthod

1.Using smart technology in border patrolling. 

2-Peace negotiation with Naga

3-Constant dialogue surrender with government of Myanmar and Bangladesh to resolve rohingya issue. 

4-Comprensive integrated management of border

  India and Myanmar have historic, cultural and strategic relationship, which need to strengthen through India's act east policy. 

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Four states of India (Arunachal pradesh ,Nagaland,Manipur, Mizoram) shares border with Myanmar. (You could write a better introduction by mentioning any recent incident/ activity or by writing about any recent bilateral agreement/meeting to establish peace along the border.)

There are various challenges along India Myanmar border which are as following-

1) Organised crime-smuggling of drug especially opium from golden Triangle, human trafficking and smuggling of gold 

2) Rohingyas issue-prosecuted minority of Myanmar consistently entering into North eastern states, increasing security threat. (Good)

3) Insurgency-NSCN-k fraction of Naga active in Myanmar , pose security threat.(Mention separatist activities also) 

4) Underdevelopment-due to geographically marginalised from rest of india (Your point is good but still we need to be careful about demand of the question as question itself has given us the direction that we need to write about the challenges posed to 'the policing of the border in North-East India')

 Although there are various security challenges, it can resolve through following menthod (method).

1.Using smart technology in border patrolling. (Such as?? any suggestion would be better like steel fencing)

2-Peace negotiation with Naga.

3-Constant dialogue surrender with government of Myanmar and Bangladesh to resolve rohingya issue. 

4-Comprensive integrated management of border

  India and Myanmar have historic, cultural and strategic relationship, which need to strengthen through India's act east policy. (In conclusion add briefly the achievements (such as Joint operations) which we have achieved so far and then write your concluding line.)

Overall feedback:

1) Your answer is good in content and inclusion of aspects.

2) Answer is well written within words limit.

3) Examples and recent activities are missing which make answer more contemporary.

4) Introduction and conclusion can be made more relevant by incorporating the suggestions.

5) Avoid spelling mistakes which are probably typo-errors

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Overall Feedback:

1) Your answers is good in direction and is within words limit.

2) Conceptual clarity is needed and there are some mistakes you have made such as Golden Triangle.Such mistakes will prove to be major hurdles in the way of getting good marks.

3) Always make the map in proportion to the space available, here you have made over sized map.

4) All the components of a map should be marked e.g you have not mentioned Bangladesh.

5) There are some important point missing in first part of the answer. Please read model answer and watch discussion video.

6) In second part of the answer you have not exactly written what has been asked in the question, therefore, missing the demand of the question. you are asked to write about solutions to solve these problems but you have written what we have done so far. Content orientation is required.

7) There are conceptual mistakes in the conclusion and are well highlighted, please be careful. 

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Overall Feedback

1) Your answer is good in content.

2) Addressing the demand of the question.

3) Presentation and style of writing is good.

3) Language is simple and easily comprehensible.

5) There are minor improvements required in nature of the points suggested.

Most of your points suggest 'unilateral view' and does not focus on 'bilateral relations'. In case of any border management, we need to engage the other country also and any step is generally taken with bilateral consent. So, before suggesting deployment of any force (like you suggested Assam rifles) or deployment any special force with modern arms, please suggest ways to increase bilateral cooperation. 

First we need to agree on some steps and then only we can take those steps. The challenge is not only to  secure our boundaries but also to maintain bilateral cooperation. 

Your answer is good, keep on writing.

All the best!

 

Ashutosh Joshi

North-East India’s border is the most challenging of all for our security forces with problems emanating from multiple sources. Cross-border movement of insurgents being an important issue, others too require equally careful attention.

Various other challenges emanating from Indo-Myanmar border

•Illegal migration: Myanmar shares a border of about 1600 km and the turbulent socio-economic conditions here result in influx of illegal migrants into India. They are perceived by the locals as a threat to their demographic composition. Eg persecution of Rohingyas is driving them into India.

•Smuggling: Being a part of golden triangle, Myanmar poses threat of drug smuggling into India. Also smuggling of weapons, cattle, fake Indian currency poses a grave threat.

•Trafficking: women from across the border are being trafficked into India.

•Terrorism: Though major threat from international terrorism emanates from Pakistan, terrorists use Myanmar border to get into India as the security set up Indo-Pak doesn’t allow them to infiltrate

 Steps to counter:

  •    Border security can be strengthened along with deploying more personnel along sensitive spots
  •    Robust intelligence sharing and cooperation with Myanmar government should be set up
  •   Engage Myanmar through diplomatic channels to bring a solution to the refugee crisis
  •  For long term solutions, India should partner with Myanmar to bring in economic development there. Development of Myanmar would also mean long lasting peace on Indian border.

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North-East India’s border is the most challenging (Not necessarily. There are different kind of challenges with different borders) of all for our security forces with problems emanating from multiple sources. Cross-border movement of insurgents being an important issue, (No need to repeat the question)others too require equally careful attention.

Various other challenges emanating from Indo-Myanmar border

•Illegal migration: Myanmar shares a border of about 1600 km and the turbulent socio-economic conditions here result in influx of illegal migrants into India. They are perceived by the locals as a threat to their demographic composition. Eg persecution of Rohingyas is driving them into India.

•Smuggling: Being a part of golden triangle, Myanmar poses threat of drug smuggling into India. Also smuggling of weapons, cattle, fake Indian currency poses a grave threat.

•Trafficking: women from across the border are being trafficked into India. (This point can be clubbed with the point written above i.e. Smuggling)

•Terrorism: Though major threat from international terrorism emanates from Pakistan, terrorists use Myanmar border to get into India as the security set up Indo-Pak doesn’t allow them to infiltrate. (This point is merely minute expansion of your first point. You can club it with the first point)

The question demands your views on 'challenges other than insurgents' so please write more challenges. Those points are already provided with suggested answer points. Please read them once 

 Steps to counter:

  •    Border security can be strengthened along with deploying more personnel along sensitive spots
  •    Robust intelligence sharing and cooperation with Myanmar government should be set up
  •   Engage Myanmar through diplomatic channels to bring a solution to the refugee crisis
  •  For long term solutions, India should partner with Myanmar to bring in economic development there. Development of Myanmar would also mean long lasting peace on Indian border.

(This part of your answer is quite good and is arranged in orderly manner.)

Overall Feedback:

1) Points are mostly good and address the demand of the question. 

2) Answer presentation and language is good and also the length of the answer is appropriate.

3) Main content body requires minor improvement.

4) last part of the answer is written well and also arranged in required manner. 

5) Overall answer is good and contains relevant point but better if you can add more aspects and examples.

 

Anitha D

Mynammar share a border with the 4 Indian states namely Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur and Mizoram.Diphu pass is a trijunction between India mynammar and China.

Due to mynammar  strategic location its posses several internal security problems

1.Due to porous border the smuggling and human trafficking has increased in a border area

2. Illegal trades

3.Illegal migration due to crisis and for livelihood

4. Passing treat to the internal security

Steps to tackle this problems

1. Conservative measures to be taken along with cooperation of mynammar goverment

2. Proper implementation of international illegal immigration law

3.restricting entries in border through proper implementation of border security forces

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Mynammar share a border with the 4 Indian states namely Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Manipur and Mizoram.Diphu pass is a trijunction between India mynammar and China.  (Instead of giving simple geographical information, you can write here about any recent activity/happening/meeting/agreement etc to make introduction more relevant.)

Due to mynammar  strategic location its posses several internal security problems (No need to write it separately as your are already suggesting the same.)

1.Due to porous border the smuggling and human trafficking has increased in a border area

2. Illegal trades

3.Illegal migration due to crisis and for livelihood

4. Passing treat to the internal security

Steps to tackle this problems

1. Conservative measures to be taken along with cooperation of mynammar goverment (Specify the steps. Your suggestions should have something very concrete.)

2. Proper implementation of international illegal immigration law

3.restricting entries in border through proper implementation of border security forces.

Overall Feedback :

1) Your understanding of question is good.

2) Introduction and conclusion need content enrichment and  more relevancy.

3) Most of your points are general in nature and lack in substance. There is nothing concrete in suggestions. 

4) Answer does not show any linkage with current affairs. Please link it by mentioning recent developments.

5) Small changes will bring great amount of quality and relevancy in your answers.

All the best! 

Gagandeep Kumar

 Indo-Myanmar has traditionally been the most susceptible to the cross border insurgency due to geographical continuity, ethnic linkage, and free movement across the border. This poses a lot of security challenges to Countries like India.

Challenges 

1.Cross border insurgency

2.Drug Smuggling: This region is also called as Golden Triangle.

3.Gold Smuggling.

4.Rohingya crisis: Refugee which is a threat to India and Countries like India which has no refugee policy.

5.Dense forest and Hilly topography.

6.Development of the North-East region.

Various Steps to counter the challenges-

1.Smart fencing: start as a pilot project.

2.Smart border management.

3.Border hat: It becomes quite successful in the India Bangladesh border.

4.Naga peace accord.

5.International Cooperation: With the Myanmar government.

6.Integrated check post.

7. Joint operation: Conduct more exercise to counter the menace of the insurgent groups like operation Sunshine.

Thus handling insurgency in the north-eastern states is crucial for the development of north-eastern states.

 

 

 

 

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 Indo-Myanmar has traditionally been the most susceptible to the cross border insurgency due to geographical continuity, ethnic linkage, and free movement across the border. This poses a lot of security challenges to Countries like India.

Challenges 

1.Cross border insurgency

2.Drug Smuggling: This region is also called as Golden Triangle.(Explain briefly why it is called 'Triangle', if only India and Myanmar are there.)

3.Gold Smuggling.

4.Rohingya crisis: Refugee which is a threat to India and Countries like India which has no refugee policy.

5.Dense forest and Hilly topography.(This is not a challenge rather it's a responsible factor.)

6.Development of the North-East region. (Not directly linked to bilateral relations.)

Various Steps to counter the challenges-

1.Smart fencing: start as a pilot project.

2.Smart border management. (explain briefly)

3.Border hat: It becomes quite successful in the India Bangladesh border.(Good)

4.Naga peace accord.

5.International Cooperation: With the Myanmar government. (Very wide and vague point, narrow it down by specifying fields and areas or any example)

6.Integrated check post.

7. Joint operation: Conduct more exercise to counter the menace of the insurgent groups like operation Sunshine.

Also focus on strengthening bilateral relation and mention role and importance of regional groupings like BIMSTEC.

Thus handling insurgency in the north-eastern states is crucial for the development of north-eastern states.

Overall Feedback:

1) Overall your answer is good.

2) Required brevity and adequate presentation is there.

3) Almost all the points are covered.

4) Mentioning of recent example is missing. It will make your answer more updated. 

5) In second part of answer more emphasis should be given on Bilateral Relations.

5) Overall its good with adherence to word limit and use of simple language and writing style.

Amit Tripathi

Myanmar boundary line, the connection point of slightly isolated part of main land India, shares porous border of 1600km with NE states. 

The challenges posed by India in recent.

1 Thailand,Laos, Myanmar (golden triangle)the birth zone of smuggled gold, weapons,drugs and human trafficking.

2 The porous border allows Pak terrorist to enter into India because that is easier Indo Pak border in terms of security

3 Rohingya refugees which enter into India creates more socio economic problems

4 The dense forest and hilly topography seems big challenge for Indian securities to tackle challenge.

5Joint operations: conduct more exercise to control menace of insurgent groups OPERATION SUNSHINE

6Integrated check posts 

Measures for tackling challenge

Cover the border with steel fence with integrated check posts

Do bilateral agreement for trade with strict policies 

Administration has to contact civillian in manner of their own family member ,this will improve patriotism of local Indian citizens

Improve education facilities and employment opportunities to improve contact with local citizens.

India and Myanmar have historic , cultural and strategic relationships which needs to be strengthened through the act east policy.

 

 

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Myanmar boundary line, the connection point of slightly isolated (Instead of writing isolated you can write geographically isolated) part of main land India, shares porous border of 1600km with NE (Write the full-form for the first time) states of India

The challenges posed by  (What??) India in recent.

1 Thailand,Laos, Myanmar (golden triangle)the birth zone (Dont use unnecessarily figurative language as it casts wrong impression) of smuggled gold, weapons,drugs and human trafficking.

2 The porous border allows Pak terrorist to enter into India because that is easier Indo Pak border in terms of security

3 Rohingya refugees which enter into India creates more socio economic problems

4 The dense forest and hilly topography seems big challenge for Indian securities to tackle challenge.

5Joint operations: conduct more exercise to control menace of insurgent groups OPERATION SUNSHINE

6Integrated check posts   (Are these challenges?? If not then why you are writing these points under the category of challenges.) 

Measures for tackling challenge

Cover the border with steel fence with integrated check posts (Do not suggest anything hypothetically)

Do bilateral agreement for trade with strict policies (Nothing in concrete is suggested in this point)

Administration has to contact civillian in manner of their own family member ,this will improve patriotism of local Indian citizens. (Your point is vague)

Improve education facilities and employment opportunities to improve contact with local citizens.

India and Myanmar have historic , cultural and strategic relationships which needs to be strengthened through the act east policy. (Dont limit the scope to any particular policy)

Overall Feedback:

1) You tried well to answer this question. 

2) Most of your point in first part of answer are valid but you need to work on language.

3) You have not proprly categorised the points and have mixed them up. Write in clearly segregated manner and in orderly fashion. 

4) Most of your points in second portion of answer are either not feasible or impractical. Read well and then try again

5) Use of specialised diction is missing and in conclusion you have limited scope of improvement to particular policy. This can not work in subjects like IR as is demands diplomatic tactics and diction. 

6) Work on your writing skill. There is a lot of scope for the improvement.

Read well and then try wring answers of IR.

 

All the best!

 

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Dear Aishwarya,

We appreciate your efforts in writing the answer and can understand your inquisitiveness to know your preparedness. It is difficult to give you feedback after evaluation as you have not left any space for us to write feedback. Please put your answer paper on a bigger size paper and click the photo which should have margins on each side. After clicking the pic re-upload it as PDF. From the next time please leave side margin spaces for us to write feedback.

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Answer-

India-Myanmar ties date back to Ganga-Mekong civilization and even in recent times, there has been substantial collaboration in terms of tourism, transport, communication, and education. However, the India-Myanmar border has been facing the following challenges: - (Introduction is good and apt. Well expressed with brevity.)

  1. Infiltration of Rohingya Muslims- The infiltration of the persecuted Rohingya Muslims from the Rakhine State of Myanmar to India has not only created "Refugee" problems but also has led to severe militant activities in this region.(This point is already mentioned in the question. Question is asking for other points. This point of yours will be considered as repetition of question.)
  2. Golden Triangle- The 'golden triangle' comprising of Myanmar, Laos, Thailand is the center of the opium trade that takes place through the India-Myanmar border. (Why it is called 'golden triangle? Mention in brief the reason and things which are smugelled through this route.)
  3. China-Myanmar Economic Corridor- China is developing roads in Myanmar under its belt and road initiative and ports under the "string of pearls" to gain dominance over the Indian Ocean region. Such developments pose security threats in India. (Content of the point is good but you should mention the name of projects to substantiate your point.)

In order to counter these challenges, India needs to take the following steps: -

  1. Strengthening Economic Ties- with the withdrawal of India from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), India should try to strengthen the bilateral trade with Myanmar. This will help India to gain greater insight into this region.
  2. Setting up of ports in Myanmar for both Economic and Naval purposes- India should invest in developing infrastructure in Myanmar to enhance its visibility in the region.
  3. India can leverage its cultural ties with Myanmar for getting cooperation from Myanmar in order to create a bilateral task force in this region.

Conclusion is missing

Overall Feedback:

1) Your answer is good in terms of content and balance.

2) Minor details are missing, Please provide them also.

3) You have nowhere mentioned name of projects by China and also not mentioned work done by India. You should name/mention steps taken by India in this regard. 

4) Conclusion is missing. Here you can write about Indian steps and policies and recent developments.

5) Overall your effort is good and is well balanced.

Aishwarya Bhatnagar

 

Answer-

India-Myanmar ties date back to Ganga-Mekong civilization and even in recent times, there has been substantial collaboration in terms of tourism, transport, communication, and education. However, the India-Myanmar border has been facing the following challenges: -

  1. Infiltration of Rohingya Muslims- The infiltration of the persecuted Rohingya Muslims from the Rakhine State of Myanmar to India has not only created "Refugee" problems but also has led to severe militant activities in this region.
  2. Golden Triangle- The 'golden triangle' comprising of Myanmar, Laos, Thailand is the center of the opium trade that takes place through the India-Myanmar border.
  3. China-Myanmar Economic Corridor- China is developing roads in Myanmar under its belt and road initiative and ports under the "string of pearls" to gain dominance over the Indian Ocean region. Such developments pose security threats in India.

In order to counter these challenges, India needs to take the following steps: -

  1. Strengthening Economic Ties- with the withdrawal of India from the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), India should try to strengthen the bilateral trade with Myanmar. This will help India to gain greater insight into this region.
  2. Setting up of ports in Myanmar for both Economic and Naval purposes- India should invest in developing infrastructure in Myanmar to enhance its visibility in the region.
  3. India can leverage its cultural ties with Myanmar for getting cooperation from Myanmar in order to create a bilateral task force in this region.

 _____________________________________________________

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Your answer has been evaluated above. You have pasted this answer at two places so we have evaluated it at first place and have given extensive feedback. Please go though it there. 

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Overall Feedback:

1) Answer contains relevant content.

2) Interpretation of question is good but content is not written keeping in mind the very demand of the question. The problem lies in managing in content and not in relevancy of the content.

3) Always write what is asked in question. Do not write whatever you know. It seems in Introduction part, you have tried to write what you know. 

4) Try to answer in holistic manner and do not limit your aspects to the Govt efforts only. See the picture in big canvas. 

5) Recent developments and incidents should be used well to substantiate your points. Any data/incident/bilateral meeting/agreement should be mentioned well to show the current development/progress in this direction.

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1) You answer contains almost all the required point. 

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3) Answer is lacking in structure and presentation. Also things are not written in rational way. Most important things are written in brief and less important things are written in details. 

4)  Interpretation of question is weak as you have started your content from the point which is already accepted in the question.

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6) Avoid writing your answer in paragraph form. Try to write answers in point form preferably(Not necessarily).

7) Arrange all your points in orderly fashion. Write them in decreasing order of significance.

8) Conclusion and way forward both cannot exist in same answer unless way forward or suggestions are asked specifically.

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1) You have performed well in first and second parts of the answer. Content is not only good but well presented also.

2) You style of writing is good and compact enough to fulfill the requirements of UPSC CSE. 

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5) Point to point feedback is provided on your answer copy. Download it and work on that feedback.

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Sr

North East which share its 1600 km border with myanmar has evolved into epicenter of social disorder this has been primarily due to its past experiences , as the central government has exclusively look on to it western borders but overlook the conditions evolving in the North Eastern. 

The North East since then has been highly susceptible to

1. Insurgency: Neglect shown to this area has resulted this area into the breeding grounds for the insurgent groups such as United liberation Front of West South Asia ULFA, NSCN-K which uses areas across border for hiding.

2. Drug trafficking: The area comprising the myanmar border has showing increasing activity of drug trafficking and has been consolidating the golden triangle.

3. Infiltration: The resent genocide of Rohingya muslim in mynamar has increased the activity of infiltration of rohingya people into indian territories which itself is a matter of concern as these infiltrators are facing high social insecurities which have made them easy targets of radicalization.

4. Cross border terrorism : Many terrorist groups have changed there area of network from bangladesh to these area such as Jamat-e-Islami, jamat-e-mujhaideen & Akaran army, these are supported by China to make the region unstable for india  and cosolidate its economic Gains.

In order to counter these challenges what needs to be done 

1.  Upliftment of the society by investing heavily into infrastructure,Industries and  social security schemes so that poverty & unemployment can lowered.

2. Intelligence sharing & co operation with mynamar army

3. More enthusiastic Role of police in these states.

4. Better Healthcare & Education so that people do not feel neglected

5.Latest technology in use for patrolling of Borders, with better equipments.

6. Increase role of Air-force 

7. relineate of borders according to cultural and Ethinicity between regions.

8. Focusing on More finacially independent economies

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North East which share its 1600 km border with myanmar has evolved into epicenter of social disorder this has been primarily due to its past experiences , as the central government has exclusively look on to it western borders but overlook the conditions evolving in the North Eastern. (First line of Introduction is good but second line seems to be biased. Do not write in flavour of allegation.)

The North East since then has been highly susceptible to

1. Insurgency: Neglect shown to this area has resulted this area into the breeding grounds for the insurgent groups such as United liberation Front of West South Asia ULFA, NSCN-K which uses areas across border for hiding. (This point is already asked in question hence no need to write it here.)

2. Drug trafficking: The area comprising the myanmar border has showing increasing activity of drug trafficking and has been consolidating the golden triangle.

3. Infiltration: The resent genocide of Rohingya muslim in mynamar has increased the activity of infiltration of rohingya people into indian territories which itself is a matter of concern as these infiltrators are facing high social insecurities which have made them easy targets of radicalization.

4. Cross border terrorism : Many terrorist groups have changed there area of network from bangladesh to these area such as Jamat-e-Islami, jamat-e-mujhaideen & Akaran army, these are supported by China to make the region unstable for india  and cosolidate its economic Gains. (These points are good and well written) 

In order to counter these challenges what needs to be done 

1.  Upliftment of the society by investing heavily into infrastructure,Industries and  social security schemes so that poverty & unemployment can lowered. (Limit yourself to the demand of the question only..)

2. Intelligence sharing & co operation with mynamar army

3. More enthusiastic Role of police in these states (Explain briefly)

4. Better Healthcare & Education so that people do not feel neglected (Club this point with first point)

5.Latest technology in use for patrolling of Borders, with better equipments.

6. Increase role of Air-force (Why only Air force?)

7. relineate of borders according to cultural and Ethinicity between regions.

8. Focusing on More finacially independent economies (Meaning of sentence is unclear)

Overall Feedback:

1) Your answer is having few good points but flavour of Intro has spoiled the answer. 

2) Pay more attention to what is asked and what is already accepted in question. Write your answer accordingly. 

3) Club the points of same nature. You are clearly directed to do so.

4) Explain the aforesaid points to bring more clarity in content.

5) Add more relevant points such as Regional cooperation, recent Bilateral agreements/MoU, role of regional organisations, India's foreign policy etc. Try to see the bigger picture of the issue. 

6) Write a way forward/conclusion as per the demand of the question.

All the best! 

Mannu

In 1967,India -Burma boundary agreement was signed to demarcate nearly 1600 kms long border between both the countries but difficult terrain at 'India-china- Myanmar trijunction'and cultural connection of North eastern population of India makes it difficult to fence India -Myanmar border completely.This porous border is now a threat for India's security .Few of them besides insurgency are as follows :

 

1.1.Cross border circulation of counterfeit currency from Myanmar to India is detrimental to India 's economy.It support corruption and terriost activites in India .

2Porous border makes India's north eastern tribes vulnerable to human trafficking .

3 Smuggling of arms & ammunition is a threat for India's security which further escalates insurgency in India .

4. Other procecuted minorities like in  'Rohingyas issue'  can easily enter into India from Myanmar.

5.India's  geographical closeness to 'Golden  triangle' make her vulnerable to 'drug smuggling '.

   But to lower such challenges Indian govt can take following measures :

1.Installtion of 'smart fencing system 'or 'cctv' on India- china-Myanmar trijunction as Israel did on its border with Syria .

2.Promotion of peace talks with NSCN-K group .

3 Economic Developement in north eastern region can lower local support for insurgent groups.

4.Constant bilateral dialogue with Myanmar goverment against insurgency .

 5.India should explore international organisations such as ASEAN to discuss these issues .

In conclusion,  Jan -2018 agreement & recent MoU's signed between both the countries is a symbol of mutual cooperation .Along  with this,economic development in north eastern region of India ,good governance and local support  can help India to overcome these challenges .

 

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In 1967,India -Burma boundary agreement was signed to demarcate nearly 1600 kms long border between both the countries but difficult terrain at 'India-china- Myanmar trijunction'and cultural connection of North eastern population of India makes it difficult to fence India -Myanmar border completely.This porous border is now a threat for India's security .Few of them besides insurgency are as follows :(Introduction is very good and informative. You can reduce historical background to cut it short and may add any recent development.) 

1.1.Cross border circulation of counterfeit currency from Myanmar to India is detrimental to India 's economy.It support corruption and terriost activites in India .

2Porous border makes India's north eastern tribes vulnerable to human trafficking .

3 Smuggling of arms & ammunition is a threat for India's security which further escalates insurgency in India .

4. Other procecuted minorities like in  'Rohingyas issue'  can easily enter into India from Myanmar.

5.India's  geographical closeness to 'Golden  triangle' make her vulnerable to 'drug smuggling '.

   But to lower such challenges Indian govt can take following measures :

1.Installtion of 'smart fencing system 'or 'cctv' on India- china-Myanmar trijunction as Israel did on its border with Syria .

2.Promotion of peace talks with NSCN-K group .

3 Economic Developement in north eastern region can lower local support for insurgent groups.

4.Constant bilateral dialogue with Myanmar goverment against insurgency .

 5.India should explore international (Here Regional organisations and cooperation will be more fit )organisations such as ASEAN to discuss these issues .

In conclusion, (No need to write this word) Jan -2018 agreement & recent MoU's signed between both the countries is a symbol of mutual cooperation .Along  with this,economic development in north eastern region of India ,good governance and local support  can help India to overcome these challenges.

Overall Feedback:

1) Answer is very good in terms of coverage, aspects inclusion, diction and appropriateness of length.

2) Answer is strictly adhering to demand of the question and Interpretation of question is good.

Well presented and structured answer. Keep it up.

All The best !

Ankita

India and Burma are linked historically, culturally. Now 4 states (Arunachal pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland,Manipur) are sharing border with Myanmar. But As North-East India has a easy access to Golden triangle leading to the security threats to region. 

Threats like: 

1. ILLEGAL MIGRANTS: ROHINGYA CRISIS(muslim minority of Rakhine, Myanmar) entered India in huge number, as they were facing humanitarian crisis in homeland. 

2. Becoming a checkpoint for illegal smuggling for Gold, Opium, urea(fertilizers) etc, impacting Indian economy plus health of the youth. 

3. In addition to the above, Mizo and Nagas are asking for separate land. 

Measure to tackle: 

1. Resolving the Rohingya crisis- strategic meeting with Myanmar and Bangladesh. 

2. Encouraging public-private projects for investing in North-east for creating jobs and developing tge reason. 

3. Using electrical fencing and using technology for surveillance near the border for eg- using drone cameras, issuing ID cards for the supplier near the borders. 

As India and Myanmar already has friendship projects, infrastructure projects with Myanmar. And has strategic relation, the problem of insurgency has to be resolved for better relations and making these projects more beneficial for both the nations. 

These projects and these measures can help Developing the North East region and the energy plus resources of the region can be better utilised. 

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India and Burma are linked historically, culturally. Now 4 states (Arunachal pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland,Manipur) are sharing border with Myanmar. But As North-East India has a easy access to Golden triangle leading to the security threats to region. (Introduction part is good.)

Threats like: 

1. ILLEGAL MIGRANTS: ROHINGYA CRISIS(muslim minority of Rakhine, Myanmar) entered India in huge number, as they were facing humanitarian crisis in homeland. 

2. Becoming a checkpoint for illegal smuggling for Gold, Opium, urea(fertilizers) etc, impacting Indian economy plus  (and) health of the youth. 

3. In addition to the above, Mizo and Nagas are asking for separate land. (More clarity of point is required as you need to tell how it is border specific challenge and not an internal issue.)

Measure to tackle: 

1. Resolving the Rohingya crisis- strategic meeting with Myanmar and Bangladesh. 

2. Encouraging public-private projects for investing in North-east for creating jobs and developing tge reason region.

3. Using electrical fencing and using technology for surveillance near the border for eg- using drone cameras, issuing ID cards for the supplier near the borders. 

As India and Myanmar already has friendship projects (??), infrastructure projects with Myanmar. And has strategic relation, the problem of insurgency has to be resolved for better relations and making these projects more beneficial for both the nations. 

These projects and these measures can help Developing the North East region and the energy plus resources of the region can be better utilised. (No need to write conclusion in two paragraphs. You can use this word limit in adding regional cooperation, India's look east policy etc.)

Overall Feedback:

1) Your answer contains all the general points of the question. 

2) Specific content is either missing or written in vague.

3) Sometimes clarity or relevance of thought is missing because points are not arranged in orderly fashion.

4) Structure is average and requires improvement.

5) avoid spelling mistakes.

 

All the best!

GAURAV SINGHAL

More than 1600 km of border length is shared between India and Myanmar including the four Indian states viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram. Along with this, the porosity of the border facilitates the insurgents in crossborder movement.

There are various other challenges which are faced at Indo-Myanmar border such as: 

1.The issues of cross border smuggling, trafficking, and illegal trade of drugs for eg. India is a part of opium-producing Golden triangle countries along with Myanmar, and Thailand

2. Some Anti-insurgent groups have their basis in Myanmar which deals in organized crimes across borders regularly, mostly gives rise to instability in the Northeast region of India.

3. The persecution of Rohingyas in Myanmar led to an increase in illegal migration.

4. Connectivity issue because of difficult terrains and topography.

 

Although there are lot of challenges still a number of steps can be taken to counter these challenges:

1. Defense Co-operation between the two countries is necessary for countering the emerging border issues. for eg. Operation Golden Bird and operation Leach against insurgent groups.

2. Bilateral talks between two countries for resolving the issues of persecuted Rohingyas for their resettlement.

3. Use of Technology such as Drone surveillance and satellite imagery for difficult terrains

4.  operationalization of IMT corridor and Sittwe-kaladan multimodal project 

Conclusion:

Myanmar is the gateway to southEast Asia and plays a crucial role in India's Act East policy. Resolving the border issues with Bilateral cooperation along with strengthening India's own capabilities to counter these issues is the need of the hour.

 

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More than 1600 km of border length is shared between India and Myanmar including the four Indian states viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram. (Why do you think this piece of Information is necessary in this answer? You can start with contemporary issue instead of giving conventional introduction) Along with this, the porosity of the border facilitates the insurgents in crossborder movement.

There are various other challenges which are faced at Indo-Myanmar border such as: 

1.The issues of cross border smuggling, trafficking, and illegal trade of drugs for eg. India is a part of opium-producing Golden triangle countries along with Myanmar, and Thailand (India is not a part of golden triangle but touches the boundary of one its forming country i.e. Myanmar)

2. Some Anti-insurgent (use the correct word, such mistakes will bring down your numbers) groups have their basis in Myanmar which deals in organized crimes across borders regularly, mostly gives rise to instability in the Northeast region of India.

3. The persecution of Rohingyas in Myanmar led to an increase in illegal migration.

4. Connectivity issue because of difficult terrains and topography.

 

Although there are lot of challenges still a number of steps can be taken (you need to rephrase this sentence as challenges and steps taken are not contrary to each other, they are in sync with each other) to counter these challenges:

1. Defense Co-operation between the two countries is necessary for countering the emerging border issues. for eg. Operation Golden Bird and operation Leach against insurgent groups. (Good point, well substantiated)

2. Bilateral talks between two countries for resolving the issues of persecuted Rohingyas for their resettlement.

3. Use of Technology such as Drone surveillance and satellite imagery for difficult terrains

4.  operationalization of IMT corridor and Sittwe-kaladan multimodal project 

Conclusion:(No need to write it as heading)

Myanmar is the gateway to southEast Asia and plays a crucial role in India's Act East policy. Resolving the border issues with Bilateral cooperation along with strengthening India's own capabilities to counter these issues is the need of the hour.

Overall feedback:

1) Your style of writing is compact and perfect for answer writing in CSE.

2) You need to be careful while mentioning any piece of information/concept. Wrong info will gulp all your numbers.

3) Add role of regional associations/groups of countries, India's foreign policy etc.

4) Avoid writing any information which is neither asked nor required in answer. 

5) Be just point to point

 

All the best!

Karan Thakur

The political boundaries of Indian subcontinent were drawn by British Legislators sitting in London. They ignored natural barriers and this attributes to border issues that India faces today. Cross border insurgency is a testimony to this.

Following challenges pose threat along India-Myanmar border-
1) Myanmar acts as gateway of ‘Golden Triangle’ of narcotics to India
2) Illegal smuggling of weapons, cattle, counterfeit goods and currency
3) Myanmar, along with Bangladesh have been framed as havens of human trafficking by media reports
4) Illegal exodus of migrants like Rohingyas pose threat to India’s ethnicity and exchequer and has created unrest in NE States
5) BRI and cheque book diplomacy by China pose threat to India’s sovereignty since Tawang has been bone of contention between Indo-China diplomacy









Though peace talks, demonetization, strengthening security has minimized it to some extent, further more aspects need to be looked upon-
1) Diplomacy must be forefront way to settle humanitarian issues like Rohingyas and human trafficking
2) Strengthening border forces with adequate surveillance at sensitive hotspots
3) Strengthening military cooperation with specific joint exercises, intelligence sharing, etc
4) Upgradation of Infrastructure, say Border Hats 2.0 and Integrated Check Posts for better economic cooperation






Nevertheless, both nations have seen friendly relations and share platforms like BIMSTEC and MCG. Myanmar is strategically important for Sittwe Project for NE development and is gateway to ASEAN. India must leverage its cultural and economic ties for mutual benefits.

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The political boundaries of Indian subcontinent were drawn by British Legislators sitting in London. (This line alone is not making sense as per the demand of the question. You write the fact lying in this line with the second or third line of Introduction.) They ignored natural barriers and this attributes to border issues that India faces today. Cross border insurgency is a testimony to this.

Following challenges pose threat along India-Myanmar border-
1) Myanmar acts as gateway of ‘Golden Triangle’ of narcotics to India
2) Illegal smuggling (Smuglling is always illegal) of weapons, cattle, counterfeit goods and currency
3) Myanmar, along with Bangladesh have been framed as havens of human trafficking by media reports
4) Illegal exodus of migrants like Rohingyas pose threat to India’s ethnicity and exchequer and has created unrest in NE States
5) BRI and cheque book diplomacy by China pose threat to India’s sovereignty since Tawang has been bone of contention between Indo-China diplomacy.






Though peace talks, demonetization,(On what basis you are including this particular step of Govt? Source of information should be mentioned to provide more weight to your point.) strengthening security has minimized it to some extent, further more aspects need to be looked upon-
1) Diplomacy must be forefront way to settle humanitarian issues like Rohingyas and human trafficking
2) Strengthening border forces with adequate surveillance at sensitive hotspots
3) Strengthening military cooperation with specific joint exercises, intelligence sharing, etc
4) Upgradation of Infrastructure, say Border Hats 2.0 and Integrated Check Posts for better economic cooperation




Nevertheless, both nations have seen friendly relations and share platforms like BIMSTEC and MCG. Myanmar is strategically important for Sittwe Project for NE development and is gateway to ASEAN. India must leverage its cultural and economic ties for mutual benefits.

Overall Feedback:

1) You have written really nice answer.

2) Style of writing, compactness, inclusion of variety of aspects, balanced approach, adherence to words limit on all the parameters answer is good.

3) You need to understand the importance of every word and should be aware of ways to use it in answer. You need to work on this.

Overall it's a very good answer. 

keep on practicing and work on feedback. 

 

All the best!

Feedback:
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Overall Feedback:
Dear Narender,
1) Your answer requires improvement in almost all the parts i.e. Introduction, Content body and Conclusion.
2) You need to focus more on demand of the question and write the content accordingly.
3) In content part you need to prioritize the points according to demand of the question.
4) Always weave your answer keeping in mind 'what is asked' and NOT 'what you know'.
5) Bring more relevancy in Introduction and Conclusion.





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Description

Indo-Myanmar has traditionally been the most susceptible for cross-border insurgency as a result of geographical contiguity, ethnic linkages across the border and free movement regime between the two countries. The cross-border insurgency has resulted in a number of security threats to India including arms smuggling, drug trafficking and gold smuggling recently.

Cross-border insurgency

Indian insurgent groups, particularly from Manipur and Nagaland, have historically found shelter in Myanmar due to geographical contiguity and ethnic linkages. These groups have set up bases in Myanmar and operating across the border to fuel secessionist movements in India posing a security threat to India. Eg: The separatist Naga insurgent group NSCN(K) has its base in Myanmar.

Arms smuggling

The insurgents have used the porous border to smuggle arms and ammunition sourced from Thailand to fuel its activities in India.

Drug Trafficking

Given the proximity to ‘Golden Triangle’ which is the global hub of drug trafficking, India-Myanmar border is vulnerable to trafficking of narcotic drugs. Further the drug trafficking has resulted in resulted in rise in drug abuse in the border states, particularly Mizoram which has also seen a rise in HIV incidence.

Gold smuggling

India is witnessing an upsurge in the gold smuggling with Indo-Myanmar border becoming the hotbed of gold smuggling contributing to 25% of all the gold smuggled in India.

Emerging security challenges

There is an increasing movement of insurgents in Myanmar towards the Indo-Myanmar border who have been targeting the Kaladhan projects which is seen as the alternative gateway for development of North-east.

The Rohingya infiltration from Myanmar to Bangladesh also poses a security threat to India. This is because the Rohingyan muslims are being exploited by anti-India radical Islamist groups like Jamat-iIslami and Jamat-i-Mujahideen in Bangladesh to destabilize peace in the region.

Way Forward

Joint-operations

India and Myanmar has been conducting joint-operations to fight the insurgents recently including the Operation Sunshine and Operation Sunrise. These efforts are welcome and should be stepped up.

Border Management

Integrated border management including border-fencing, setting up a dedicated force, Integrated Check Post at Moreh etc.

Dedicated hot line for border incursions should be set up.

Information exchange on Drug Trafficking

India and Myanmar have started coordinated efforts to fight drug trafficking including information exchange, sharing of best practices etc.

Development projects

India should step up efforts to develop the region through setting up of banks, FIIs, infrastructure so as to improve the communication in the region.

The pending projects under Kaladhan MMT, particularly the highway projects should be expedited. Myanmar has a vast resource of oil and gas and lacks expertise in prospecting and exploration. India should extend this expertise which will help in energy security for both countries.

Thus handling of insurgency in the north eastern states is crucial for the holistic development of the north eastern states.

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