22 Jan, 2020

  • Bilateral Investment Treaty- (Economy)
  • Freedoms Under article 19 - (Polity and Governance)
  • Thirty Meter Telescope - (Science and Tech)
  • Electoral Bonds - (Polity and Governance)
  • Practice Questions

Prelims Quiz


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    Return of bonds

    The Political Funding of Elections has emerged as a biggest threat to Indian democracy. According to the Association of Democratic Reforms (ADR), 70% of the funding of the political parties comes from unknown sources which increase the risk of big corporates and super-rich individuals influencing the decisions of the Government. Hence, In order to improve the transparency in the funding of Elections, the Government had introduced Electoral Bonds in 2018. However, a number of concerns have been raised with respect to Electoral Bonds.

    • What are Electoral Bonds?
    • Electoral Bonds- Concerns and Challenges
    • Corporate Funding of Elections
    • Lack of Transparency
    • Foreign Influence


    India, Brazil to sign Strategic Action Plan

    What is Bilateral Investment Treaty?

    Bilateral investment Treaties (BITs) are agreements between two Countries for the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments in each other's territories by individuals and companies situated in either State.

    • Features of bit generally
      • Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET):
      • Full Protection and Security (FPS):
      • National Treatment:
      • Most Favourable Nation Treatment (MFN): 
      • Expropriation (Taking over property):
      • Repatriation of Investment and Returns:
      • Investor State Dispute Resolution (ISDS):
    • Reason for termination of BITs
    • Important Provisions of Model BIT
    • Enterprise based definition of investment:
    • Exclusion of MFN treatment:
    • Conditions for initiating arbitrations at international arbitrations:
    • Corporate Social Responsibility


    The right to protest in a free society

    India is witnessing unprecedented public protests. People are assembling on the streets to oppose government policies such as Citizenship Amendment Act and the National Register of Citizens.

    • Rights of Protest under Article 19
    • Importance of Protests in a Democracy


    India, co-builder of Hawaii telescope, wants it shifted out of proposed site

    • What is TMT?
    • What will TMT Explore?
    • Types of telescopes for Astronomy
    • Ground Based Telescopes
    • Optical Telescopes
    • Radio telescopes
    • Radio interferometry
    • Solar Telescopes
    • Space Based Telescopes
    • Infrared Telescopes
    • Ultraviolet Telescopes
    • Notable Ultraviolet Space Telescopes
    • X-Ray Telescopes
    • Notable Space Based X-ray Telescopes
    • Microwave Telescopes
    • Notable Space Based Microwave Telescopes
    • Gamma-Ray Telescopes
    • Notable Gamma-ray Telescopes