11 Feb, 2020
- Reservation as right (Polity and Governance)
- Safeguarding the delta (Polity and Governance)
- Supreme Court upholds changes to SC/ST atrocities law (Polity and Governance)
- US nod for sale of air defence system to India (Science and Technology)
- Review court can refer questions to larger bench (Polity and Governance)
- Draft on rare diseases notified (reference) (Social Issues)
- Practice Questions
U.S. nod for air defence system sale to India
US has approved the sale of Integrated Air Defence Weapon System to India under Foreign Military Sales (FMS) route.
- India is developing a multi-layered air defence system for its cities starting from Delhi besides air defence system for tactical battle areas.
- The layered approach focuses on developing protection depending on origin of the threat (range of missiles) and capabilities for interception (altitude).
- NASAMS forms the inner most layer of the air defence system.
5th Layer: NASAMS (National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System)
- This constitutes the inner-most layer of air defence plan for Delhi.
- It will be deployed to protect vital assets and people in the National Capital region of Delhi including President’s house, Parliament etc.
- It renders quick-reaction 3-dimensional protection at low altitudes of 5 km to various types of aerial threats ranging from drones to ballistic missiles.
- 12 multi-missile launchers to launch both advanced medium-range air-to- air missiles AMRAAMs and Stinger surface-air-missiles
- Sentinel X-band 3D radars
- 4 Fire Distribution Centres
- Advanced electro-optical/infrared sensor system vehicles.
In brief: Multi-layered Air Defence System
- India is developing a multi-layered air defence system for its cities besides air defence system for tactical battle areas.
- The layered approach focuses on developing protection depending on
- origin of the threat (range of missiles)
- capabilities for interception (altitude).
1st layer: 2-tier Ballistic Missile Defence System
- The 1st layer comprises of outermost layer of protection aimed at intercepting aerial threat from ballistic missiles that have ranges upto 5000km.(ICBMs)
- DRDO is developing a 2-tier ballistic missile defence system that can intercept ballistic missiles at altitudes both outside (exo) and inside (endo) the atmosphere.
- 1st layer: Endo
- The single stage solid rocket-propelled Advanced Air Defence (AAD) low-altitude interceptor (Ashwin)
- The AAD interceptor missile is primarily designed to intercept enemy missiles in the endo-atmosphere at altitudes of 20-40 kilometers.
- 2nd layer: Exo
- Prithvi Air Defense Vehicle known as Pradyumna Ballistic Missile Interceptor is designed to destroy missiles with ranges 300-2000 km at exo-atmosphere (about 80km altitude).
- For higher altitudes upto 150 km, Agni-V-based ballistic interceptors would be used. (because of 5000km range)
2nd Layer: S-400 layered defence system
- In October 2018, India signed a deal with Russia to acquire S-400 Triumf multi-layered air defence system.
- CAATSA and S-400
- This is despite US opposition to the deal through CAATSA, a law that requires sanctioning those countries that have significant defence cooperation with Russia.
- Turkey is warned of sanctions recently by US cancelling the F-35 training programme to Turkish pilots
- India is thus wary of similar sanctions.
- On the other hand, USA is offering THAAD and Patriot as alternative to S-400 to India.
- About S-400 Triumf
- S-400 layered defence system can intercept all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and ballistic and cruise missiles up to the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km.
3rd Layer: Barak-8 long and medium range SAM
- Barak-8 is a medium-range surface-to-air missile system being developed jointly by India and Isreal.
- It will have an interception range of 70-100 km.
4th Layer: Akash medium-range surface to air missile system
- India has 2 regiments of the indigenous Akash systems which are capable of multi-target engagement.
- It can strike targets up to a range of 25km and altitude of 18,000m.
Question: India is building a multi-layered air defence system around Delhi. In this context consider the following statements.
- NASAM forms the inner-most layer of the air defence system
- The missiles used under NASAM layer provides quick-reaction protection at low altitudes of 5 km.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2