17 October, 2020

  • 2020 Mains Compass - ESSAY
  • (i) Stubble Burning: Justice Lokur, Students to save NCR (ii) AQI improves in Delhi, neighbouring states (iii) CPCB expects dip in pollution levels in Delhi (Environment)
  • New group to revive Bodoland movement (Security + Polity & Governance)
  • Valley's Voice (Gupkar Declaration) (Editorial) (Internal Security)
  • Hope amid Uncertainty (WEP 2020 Report) (Editorial) (Economy)
  • India fares poorly in Global Hunger Index - GHI (Social Justice)
  • Policy Delay hurting Edible Oil Security (Economy)
  • Question for the day (Security)

Prelims Quiz


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    UPSC Current Affairs: Stubble Burning + AQI improves in Delhi + CPCB expects dip in Pollution levels— Page No. 01/02

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Environment & Biodiversity

    Sub Theme: Environmental Pollution in NCR| Stubble Burning | AQI| SAFAR | NAAQS|UPSC    

    Context: SC appoints one-man panel (Former SC Judge Madan B. Lokur to monitor and prevent instances of stubble burning.

    • A Supreme Court Bench led by Chief Justice of India (CJI) Sharad A. Bobde appointed Justice Lokur as a one-man committee to monitor and prevent instances of stubble burning by farmers in the three States of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
    • Former Supreme Court judge Madan B. Lokur, helped by student volunteer forces deployed from the National Cadet Corps, the National Service Scheme and the Bharat Scouts and Guides, will protect Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region) from pollution caused by stubble burning in the neighbouring States of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh this winter.
    • Student forces will patrol highways and fields in the three States and ensure that no fires are started in the fields. The Chief Secretaries of the three States will provide facilities to the committee and provide the student volunteers with adequate transportation to aid their vigil.
    • Existing mobile teams and nodal officers of the States will report to the committee. The Supreme Court’s own Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) would consult with the committee on issues related to stubble burning.
    • Officials at the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) have said that they are expecting a decrease in instances of stubble burning, a major contributor to Delhi’s winter pollution.
    • The air quality of Delhi, Gurugram, and Noida improved to the “poor” category on Friday from “very poor” a day earlier, according to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

    Reason & Impact of increase in stubble burning in Punjab & Haryana

    • October has seen a rise in instances of stubble burning, where farmers in Punjab and Haryana burn paddy straw, compared to last year.
    • Its contribution to the Delhi National Capital Region’s overall pollution burden has grown from 6% on Wednesday to 20% on Thursday, according to data from SAFAR, a regional weather forecast service by the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
    • The Ventilation Index, a metric that indicates how efficiently pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere, was lower this October compared to the last year.
    • There were also fewer rainy days in September and October so far, compared to last year. These factors have contributed to the spike in stubble burning related pollution this year and the expectation is that along with measures taken to discourage famers from burning and less acreage under non-basmati rice, there should hopefully be some reduction in severe pollution.
    • Marginal improvement in surface wind speed has led to improved ventilation and AQI in Delhi. The air quality is expected to improve in Delhi on Saturday and Sunday as per government-run monitoring agency SAFAR (System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research).
    • The contribution of stubble burning to the PM2.5, a chief pollutant, is estimated to be around 18% in Delhi.


    • Introduced by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES).
    • SAFAR for greater metropolitan cities of India is to provide location specific information on air quality in near real time and its forecast 1-3 days in advance for the first time in
    • It has been combined with the early warning system on weather parameters.
    • The implementation of SAFAR is made possible with an active collaboration with local municipal corporations and various local educational institutions and governmental agencies in that Metro city.
    • The ultimate objective of the project is to increase awareness among general public regarding the air quality in their city well in advance so that appropriate mitigation measures and systematic action can be taken up for betterment of air quality and related health issues.


    • The development of emission inventory of air pollutants for NCR and defining air quality index for India;
    • It is a network of eleven Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) equipped with 11 automatic weather stations to provide near real time air quality information.
    • Provides 3-D atmospheric chemistry transport forecasting modeling coupled with weather forecasting model to provide 24-hour advance forecast of air pollutant levels.
    • It display on LED and LCD screens located at 20 different locations in Delhi in a public friendly format and displaying the online detailed information through the Web portal.
    • Pollutants monitored: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, Ozone, CO, NOx (NO, NO2), SO2, BC, Methane (CH4), Non-methane, hydrocarbons (NMHC), VOC’s, Benzene, Mercury.
    • Monitored Meteorological Parameters: UV Radiation, Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity, Wind speed, Wind direction, and solar radiation.
    • Besides health, SAFAR system would benefit cost savings to several other sectors like agriculture, aviation, infrastructure, disaster management skill, tourism and many others, which directly or indirectly get affected by air quality and weather. 


    • AQI is an initiative of the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
    • The index is constituted as a part of Government’s mission to improve the culture of cleanliness and helps public to judge air quality within their vicinity.
    • It is a colour coded index.
    • There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
    • The index will measure eight major pollutants, namely - particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, ammonia and lead.


    • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has notified these standards under powers given to it under Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
    • It covers 12 pollutants: Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, PM-10, PM-2.5, Ozone, Lead, Carbon Monoxide, Ammonia, Benzene, BenzoPyrene, Arsenic, Nickel.
    • Whenever monitoring results on two consecutive days of monitoring exceed the limits specified in NAAQS above for the respective category, it is considered adequate reason to institute regular or continuous monitoring and further investigation.






    Introduced by the Ministry of Earth Sciences. It was developed indigenously by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune and operationalized by India Meteorological Department (IMD).  


    SAFAR for greater metropolitan cities of India is to provide location specific information on air quality in near real time and its forecast 1-3 days in advance for the first time in India.


    It has been combined with the early warning system on weather parameters.


    The SAFAR observational network of Air Quality Monitoring Stations (AQMS) and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) established within city limits represents selected microenvironments of the city including industrial, residential, background/ cleaner, urban complex, agricultural zones etc .


    Air Quality indicators are monitored at about 3 m height from the ground with online sophisticated instruments. These instruments are operated round the clock and data is recorded and stored at every 5 minute interval for quality check and further analysis.  


    Pollutants monitored: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, Ozone, CO, NOx (NO, NO2), SO2, BC, Methane (CH4), Non-methane, hydrocarbons (NMHC), VOC’s, Benzene, Mercury.


    SAFAR will also monitor the existence of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene.


    Monitored Meteorological Parameters: UV Radiation, Rainfall, Temperature, Humidity, Wind speed, Wind direction, and solar radiation.



    Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has notified these standards under powers given to it under The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.




    It covers 12 pollutants: Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, PM-10, PM-2.5, Ozone, Lead, Carbon Monoxide, Ammonia, Benzene, BenzoPyrene, Arsenic, Nickel.



    AQI is an initiative of the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.


    It is a colour coded index.


    There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfactory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.


    The index will measure eight major pollutants, namely - particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, ammonia and lead.



    Central Pollution Control Board

    • The CBCB was established on September 23, 1974 under The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 as a technical arm of Central Government for environmental research, monitoring, regulation and enforcement in the country.  Further, CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
    • It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

    Principal Functions of the CPCB – Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change

    • As spelt out in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
    • to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and
    • to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
    • Vehicular Exhausts Standards
    • Noise Pollution Standards
    • Standards for Bio-medical waste generated from Health Care Facilities - shall be treated and disposed of in accordance with the Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
    • Auto Fuel Quality
    • Hazardous Wastes Generated
    • Emission & Noise limit of Generator Sets
    • Effluent & Emission Standards for Industries


    UPSC Current Affairs: New group to revive Bodoland movement – Article |Pg 4

    UPSC Syllabus: Mains:  GS Paper III – Internal Security

    Sub Theme: Bodoland Movement | History of Bodos & demand for Bodoland| UPSC    

    Context: A new organisation has announced the revival of the Bodoland statehood movement ahead of the elections to the Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC).


    Demand for Separate State for Bodos  

    • The five-decade-old demand for a separate State for the Bodos, the largest plains tribe in the Northeast, was said to have ended with the signing of the third peace accord on January 27 for transforming the BTC into the Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) with more powers.
    • But the All India Bodo People’s National League for Bodoland Statehood has vowed to rekindle the statehood movement. Members of this league, formed on October 15, panned the BTR accord, which they said would spell disaster for the Bodo community.
    • The Bodoland statehood movement has its roots in the 1967 Udayachal stir seeking self-rule for the areas dominated by the Bodo community. The movement was doused temporarily with the signing of the First Bodo Accord in February 1993 between the government and moderate leaders of the movement.
    • This resulted in the creation of the Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC). The extremist National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), which split into four factions later on, rejected this “trivial” accord.
    • The discontent bred another outfit, the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT), which rivaled the NDFB. The Centre signed the Second Bodo Peace Accord with the BLT in February 2003, elevating the BAC to the BTC.
    • February 2020 - The Third Bodo Peace Accord designed to usher in peace in the Bodoland Territorial Areas District (BTAD), was signed by the Home Ministry, Assam government, and a range of Bodo stakeholders. This includes various factions of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) who had been leading a violent movement for a separate Bodo state. New Bodo areas will be brought under the fold of a Bodoland Regional Council, and money will be pumped in for development. 

    Ban on NDFB for 5 Years

    • As per the Union Home Ministry, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland has been indulging in illegal and violent activities, intended to undermine the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India to further its objective of achieving a separate Bodoland.
    • Accordingly the Centre has extended the ban on Assam-based Bodo insurgent group NDFB by five years.

    National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB)

    • The National Democratic Front of Bodoland is an armed separatist outfit which seeks to obtain a sovereign Bodoland for the Bodo people.
    • It is designated as a terrorist organisation by the Government of India and has been listed in First Schedule of The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. The First Schedule of UAPA has mentioned names of terrorists organisation listed out by Indian government.
    • NDFB traces its origin to Bodo Security Force, a militant group formed in 1986. The NDFB was formed with the purported objective of securing a ‘sovereign Bodoland’ in the areas north of the river Brahmaputra.
    • According to the ‘constitution’ of the outfit, which was adopted on March 10, 1998, nearly twelve years after its formation, the objectives of the outfit are the following
    • Liberate Bodoland from the Indian expansionism and occupation;
    • Free the Bodo nation from the colonialist exploitation, oppression and domination;
    • Establish a Democratic Socialist Society to promote Liberty, Equality and Fraternity; and
    • Uphold the integrity and sovereignty of Bodoland

    History of Bodos & demand for Bodoland

    • The Bodos, an ethno-linguistic group believed to be the earliest inhabitants of Assam, are one of the Indo-Mongoloid communities belonging to the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan family. 
    • For centuries, bodos maintained their original ethnic identity. However, by 20th century, they had to tackle a series of issues such as illegal immigration, encroachment of their lands, forced assimilation, loss of language and culture.
    • The 20th century also witnessed the emergence of Bodos as a leading tribe in Assam which pioneered the movements for safeguarding the rights of the tribal communities in the area.
    • In the 1920s, a delegation of educated Bodos, the Bodo Plains Tribal, met the Simon Commissionrequesting for the reservation of seats in the Legislative Assembly of Assam. This marked the beginning of political awareness among the Bodos.
    • Next, they formed the Tribal League of Assam to voice for the political rights of the ‘plains tribes’ in the 1930s. Soon after India’s independence, a Bodo literary organisation, the Bodo Sahitya Sabha (BSS), was formed to preserve and develop the Bodo language.
    • Constant immigration from East Pakistan changed Assam’s demography gradually and this created mistrust and discontent among the Bodos.
    • Consequently, the Plains Tribals’ Council of Assam (PTCA) started to campaign for a separate union territory called Udayachal for the Bodos and other ‘plains tribes’ of Assam in 1960s.
    • Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971 further increased influx of people to Assam and this further alienated the Bodos in their home land and this in turn intensified the Bodo movement.
    • No longer did they demand a union territory Instead, the All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU) started agitating for the creation of the Bodoland state.
    • During the peak of insurgency in northeast India, a small group of educated Bodo youths formed an armed militia called the Bodo Security Force (BSF) which was later renamed as the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) whose objective was to establish a sovereign Bodo homeland.


    UPSC Current Affairs: Valley's Voice - Gupkar Declaration |Pg 6

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Polity & Governance

    Sub Theme: Gupkar Declaration | UPSC  

    Context: Political Parties of Jammu & Kashmir has announced the formation of the ‘Peoples Alliance for Gupkar Declaration’ to fight for the restoration of full statehood and special constitutional status of Jammu and Kashmir. The Gupkar Declaration by these parties, on August 4, 2019, had anticipated the Centre’s move to repeal J&K’s special status the next day and vowed to fight for its protection.

    The coming together of the rival regional parties is strange and significant as this is not an electoral alliance but a political meeting point on the status of Kashmir. It is a result of the perception that politics in J&K is a face-off with the Centre and a reflection of increased Kashmiri alienation from the national mainstream. The framing of Kashmir politics as a combat with the Centre has been forced upon the regional parties.


    UPSC Current Affairs: Hope amid uncertainty - WEP, 2020 |Pg 06

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Indian Economy

    Sub Theme: World Economic Outlook Report | UPSC  

    Context: The IMF’s latest World Economic Outlook sums up the challenges ahead in the report’s title: ‘A long and difficult ascent’.

    • With COVID-19 having already extracted a toll of over a million lives, accompanied by an evisceration of livelihoods and output in economies, prognosticating the economic future even as the pandemic rages on is an unenviable task.
    • The Fund’s economists have gamely sought to make forecasts for world output through 2020, 2021 and into the medium term. While the global economy is projected to shrink 4.4% this year, reflecting a less severe contraction than the 5.2% drop estimated in June, output is seen rebounding at a marginally slower 5.2% pace in 2021.
    • The IMF has based its revision on “better-than-anticipated second-quarter GDP out-turns, mostly in advanced economies” where activity improved after lockdowns were eased, as well as signs of a stronger recovery in the July-September quarter.
    • But the IMF has been prudent in pointing out that even as the world economy ascends out of the depths it plunged to in April, following the worldwide lockdown, there remains the danger of a resurgence in infections that is prompting countries in Europe to reimpose at least partial closures.
    • And the risks associated with predicting the pandemic’s progression, the unevenness of public health responses, and the extent to which domestic activity can be disrupted, magnify the uncertainty.
    • Pointing out that the pandemic is set to leave scars well into the medium term ‘as labour markets take time to heal, investment is held back by uncertainty and balance sheet problems, and lost schooling impairs human capital’, IMF Chief Economist Gita Gopinath contends that global growth will gradually slow to about 3.5% in the medium term.
    • With the cumulative loss in output relative to the pre-pandemic projected path estimated to more than double to $28 trillion over 2020–25, efforts to improve average living standards are certain to be severely set back.
    • Observing that the pandemic is set to widen inequality between economies and within nations, the Fund has urged greater international cooperation. It is imperative for all countries to work closely to ensure that new treatments and vaccines are made available to all since wider and faster availability of medical solutions could boost global income by almost $9 trillion by end-2025, reducing income divergence, she says.
    • With no visibility yet on vaccine availability, the IMF has also stressed the need for policymakers to persist with direct income support for the most vulnerable and regulatory forbearance for stressed but viable firms. The message is clear. In a world as interconnected as it is today, the cost of economic insularity would only be more protracted pain for all.


    UPSC Current Affairs: India fares poorly in hunger index |Pg 09

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Social Issues

    Sub Theme: Global Hunger Index Report |UPSC  


    • India ranks 94 among 107 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2020, the report released on Friday said.
    • According to the report, with a score of 27.2, India has a level of hunger that is “serious”. India’s rank was 102 out of 117 countries last year.


    About the index

    • The Global Hunger Index is a peer-reviewed annual report, jointly published by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe, designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels.


    Now don’t get confused, created in 2006, the GHI was initially published by the US-based International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Germany-based Welthungerhilfe. In 2007, the Irish NGO Concern Worldwide also became a co-publisher. In 2018, IFPRI stepped aside from its involvement in the project and the GHI became a joint project of Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide.

    • It is a tool for comprehensively measuring and tracking hunger at global, regional, and national levels.
    • GHI scores are based on the values of four component indicators:
      • Undernourishment (share of the population with insufficient caloric intake),
      • Child wasting (share of children under age five who have low weight for their height, reflecting acute undernutrition),
      • Child stunting (share of children under age five who have low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition),
      • Child mortality (mortality rate of children under age five, partly reflecting the fatal mix of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments).


    Based on the values of the four indicators, the GHI determines hunger on a 100-point scale where 0 is the best possible score (no hunger) and 100 is the worst. Each country’s GHI score is classified by severity, from low to extremely alarming.


    What report says about India:

    • According to the report, 14 per cent of India’s population is undernourished. It also says that the country recorded a child stunting rate of 37.4 per cent. Stunted children are those who have a “low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition”.
    • In 2018, India ranked 103 among 119 countries on the global hunger index.
    • Although it is still in the poorest category, however, child stunting has actually improved significantly, from 54% in 2000 to less than 35% now. Child wasting, on the other hand, has not improved in the last two decades, and is rather worse than it was decade ago.
    • India has improved in both child mortality rates, which are now at 3.7%, and in terms of undernourishment, with about 14% of the total population which gets an insufficient caloric intake.


    What is the status of our neighbours?

    • In the index, India features behind Nepal (73), Pakistan (88), Bangladesh (75), Indonesia (70) among others. Out of the total 107 countries, only 13 countries fare worse than India including countries like Rwanda (97), Nigeria (98), Afghanistan (99), Liberia (102), Mozambique (103), Chad (107) among others.
    • “Data from 1991 through 2014 for Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan showed that stunting is concentrated among children from households facing multiple forms of deprivation, including poor dietary diversity, low levels of maternal education, and household poverty,”.


    UPSC Current Affairs: Policy delay hurting edible oil security’  |Pg 14   

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Indian Economy | Mains: GS Paper 3

    Sub Theme: Oilseed production | Strategies to boost Oilseed production|UPSC     

    The Oilseed crops are considered to be the second most important agricultural crops next only to cereals. The self-sufficiency in oilseeds attained through “Yellow Revolution” during early 1990’s, could not be sustained beyond a short period. Despite being the fifth largest oilseed crop producing country in the world, India is also one of the largest importers of vegetable oils.

    The demand-supply gap in the edible oils has necessitated huge imports accounting for 60 per cent of the country’s requirement. Against this backdrop, the Finance Minister has stated in the Union Budget that there is a need to boost the production of Oilseeds in India.


    Sources of vegetable oil: Nine oilseeds are the primary source of vegetable oils in the country - Soybean, Groundnut, Rape seed and Mustard, Sunflower, Safflower, Sesame, Niger, Castor, linseed. Among these, soybean (34%), groundnut (27%), rapeseed & mustard (27%) contributes to more than 88% of total oilseeds production.

    Andhra Pradesh  & Gujarat (Groundnut), Haryana(Mustard), Karnataka(Groundnut), M.P(Soybean), Maharashtra(Soybean), Rajasthan (Mustard & Soybean), Tamil Nadu(Ground nut), U.P(Mustard), West Bengal(Mustard) contribute more than 95% of total oilseed production in the country.

    In addition to nine oilseeds, vegetable oil is also being harnessed from secondary sources like cottonseed, rice bran, coconut, Tree Borne Oilseeds (TBOs) and Oil Palm.


    Present status of Oilseeds and Vegetable Oil Production in India

    In 2017-18, the Oil seeds were cultivated over an area of 26 million hectares leading to the production of around 30 million tonnes. Almost 70% of the oilseeds are cultivated in rainfed areas. The vegetable oil production is around 7 million tonnes from about 30 million tonnes of oilseeds . Due to demand-supply mismatch, India has emerged as the largest importer of vegetable oils in the world followed by China & USA. Of imported edible oils , share of palm oil is about 60% followed by soybean oil and sunflower.

    India imports almost 60% of its vegetable oil requirements which accounts for around $11 billion (about Rs 77,000 crores).


    Government's initiatives to boost production of Oilseeds

    National Food Security Mission (NFSM)-Oilseeds & Oil Palm: It aims to augment the availability of vegetable oils and to reduce the import of edible oils by increasing the production and productivity of oilseeds from an average production of 30 million tonnes and productivity of 1122 kg/ha during 12th plan period to 36 million tonnes and 1290 kg/ha, respectively by end of 2019-20. Under this scheme, financial assistance is provided to farmers through State Government for various interventions like Production and distribution of quality seeds of new varieties, Demonstration of improved technologies, Distribution of bio-pesticides, weedicides, micronutrients, gypsum, lime, bio-fertilizer, Farm machinery & implements etc.

    Increase in the import duties on Vegetable Oils: The Government has increased the customs duty on the imported crude and refined vegetables so as to incentivise the farmers to increase the production of the oilseeds.

    Increase in the Minimum Support Price (MSP): The Government has been increasing the MSP of the Oilseeds to encourage the farmers to grow more oilseeds.


    Strategy to promote cultivation of Oilseeds

    Import Duty Structure: The difference between import duty on the crude and refined oil is quite lower wherein the import duty on refined vegetable oil is 10% lower than that of crude vegetable oil. If the import duty between crude & refined oil is not very high, more of refined oil  would be imported into India affecting domestic refineries as well as the farmers. Thus, it is necessary to raise the duty differential between the crude and refined oil and it must be maintained at 20%.

    Increasing production of Oilseeds: Adoption of high yielding varieties of seeds; Adoption of soil and moisture conservation techniques in rainfed areas; promoting balanced Utilisation of fertilisers; Promotion of intercropping of Oilseeds with other crops; Promote contract farming by oil industry and exporters  etc.

    Encourage Cooperatives and Oil Federations: The oilseed farmers have to be organised into Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs), Self-help groups (SHGs), Cooperatives etc and link such collective organisations to oil processing Industries.

    Discourage Excessive consumption of vegetable Oils: The excessive consumption of vegetable oil is not good for health. As per nutritional requirement, 12-13 kg per person per annum is sufficient, while an average Indian consumes more than 18 kg per person per annum. The excessive consumption habits can be normalized by educating the consumers through electronic & print media, mobile apps, advertisements etc.