28 December, 2020 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu
- The Facade Cracks for China (International Relations)
- SII to launch Pneumonia Vaccine (Science & Technology)
- Telangana to raise Rs 10,000 Crores- (Indian Economy)
- Inner Line Permit is Centre's biggest gift to Manipur
- Deep Sea Port in West Bengal (Indian Economy)
- Question for the Day
UPSC Current Affairs: The Façade Cracks for China | Page 07
UPSC Syllabus: | Mains – GS Paper II – International Relations
Sub Theme:| Aggressive stance of China in its domestic and foreign policy| Challenges to the mighty image of China | UPSC
Context: In the backdrop of COVID -19 Pandemic for which China is being accused, It has taken an aggressive stance as far its domestic and foreign policy is concerned. It is visible in its handling of the Hong Kong, Taiwan, aggressive stance against India along the LAC and Muzzling of dissent at the domestic level. In all China has moved away from the previous president Deng Xiaoping’s approach of ‘keeping a low profile’ to the Xi Jinping's Aggressive and Assertive China. So Let us understand some of the recent events that although reflect the rise of Chinese might, are also highlighting in the Chinese image globally.
Hong Kong is a special administrative region withing China because of its British legacy. However China has effective tried to curb the autonomy by passing a series of legislations which has ignited serious protests across Hong Kong.
Some of these legislations include -
Extradition Law - A legislation (which was later scrapped) that would allow the local government to extradite criminals to the mainland China.
National Security Law - On June 30, 2020, minutes before the anniversary of Hong Kong’s handover to China by the British, China’s legislature approved a new national security law for Hong Kong. This effectively curbed the dissent and civil liberties in Hong Kong.
Expulsion of Lawmakers - this law that empowers the Chinese government to expel lawmakers in Hong Kong’s Legislative Council without recourse to judicial process.
Other Instances of aggression -
- Chinese assertion of sovereignty over Taiwan which claims itself to be an independent nation.
- Chinese assertion along LAC with India in the Galwan valley.
- Territorial claims in South China Sea.
- Chinese manipulation of WHO, which has adversely impacted the image of multilateral institutions which are already under strain due to the process of retreating Multilateralism that is being witnessed.
- Domestically China has tried to curb the dissenting voices in its administration.
- China has pursued an export led growth strategy which is popularly called as "international circulation".
- However this strategy is facing challenges because of declining global economy as a result of the COVID pandemic. Further US has imposed restriction on Chinese exports. It is also facing challenges in the technical field with Huawei being denied the go ahead for 5G roll out in many countries.
- Thus domestic consumption led growth is one of the option that remains with China.
- However, China is trying woo international circulation with its Asia Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, improving Financial ties , attracting global investors etc.
- Further its Economic strategy for the future will only be out once its 14th five year plan rolls out.
Wolf Warrior Approach -
- Through the series of Movies named " Wolf warrior", China is showing itself to be assuming the responsibility of saving the world.
- The depiction of the saviour of the world image, clearly reflects the change in stance from the previous president Deng Xiaoping’s approach of ‘keeping a low profile’ to the Xi Jinping's "Aggressive and Assertive China".
Challenges to the mighty image of China -
- US State Department released a comprehensive report which is being described as a potential blueprint for the U.S.’s response to China’s rise as an authoritarian superpower.
- By escalating a tariff war with China, U.S. President Donald Trump underscored the need for a potential economic decoupling of the world’s two major economies
- Thus it is being said that more pushback China faces globally, the more aggressive its domestic and foreign policy agenda is likely to become.
- The events in Hong Kong, Taiwan, India and muzzling of dissent in administration has adversely impacted the Chinese image globally.
- A survey by the Pew Research Centre across 14 nations shows that a majority of the respondents have an unfavourable opinion of China.
Many in China may see this year as one in which the country came into its own as a power dictating the global agenda, but for many around the world, this is also the year when China’s vulnerabilities, as well the challenges it poses to the global order, became all too apparent.
UPSC Current Affairs:SII to launch pneumonia Vaccine | Page 10
UPSC Syllabus: GS Mains Paper II – Social Issues – Health & Disease
Sub Theme: Pneumonia | Haemophilus influenza type b
The Serum Institute of India (SII) is set to launch India's first Indigenously developed vaccine against pneumonia. The vaccine that is developed by the SII is called as PNEUMOSIL. It is a Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine.
Presently, the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine is part of Universal Immunisation Programme. However, we do not have indigenously developed Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine. Presently, this vaccine is manufactured by 2 foreign companies and is available at higher prices.
Once it is launched, the SII would be selling these vaccines at $ 2 per dose and it would be 30% cheaper than the existing vaccines.
Pneumonia is the world’s leading infectious killer of children, claiming the lives of more than 800,000 children under the age of five every year, more than 2,000 every day.
In India, Pneumonia and Diarrhoea are the major reasons for the Under-5 Mortality rate. India has a pneumonia mortality rate of 7 per 1000 live births.
In human respiratory system, air that is inhaled through mouth or nose, passes through pharynx, larynx and enters the trachea (wind pipe) which bifurcates into right and left bronchi which are branched into bronchioles in the lungs. The bronchioles deliver air into alveoli in the lungs also called as air sacs. It is at the alveoli that the exchange of gases between air and blood takes place through capillary action.
Pneumonia is a respiratory infection in which alveoli, instead of air, is filled with pus and fluid making it difficult to breath and thus limiting oxygen intake.
Pneumonia is an infectious disease that can be caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi. Most common infectious agent that causes Pneumonia in children is a bacteria known as Streptococcus pneumonia. This bacteria is responsible for other infections as well:
Bacteraemia/sepsis: bloodstream infection, with or without infection of secondary sites, e.g., meningitis;
Bacterial meningitis: infection of the membranes that cover and protect the spinal cord and brain;
Otitis media: Middle ear infection; and Sinusitis, Bronchitis
Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)
Air-borne: cough, sneeze etc.
Blood transfusion: especially during birth.
Weak immune system
Children with weak immune system. Thus malnutrition is the leading cause. Other illnesses, such as HIV infections and measles also increase the risk of
Indoor air pollution caused by cooking and heating with biomass fuels
Prevention and Treatment
Immunization: rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccine
Adequate nutrition including ORS, Vitamin A and Zinc supplementation
Exclusive breastfeeding for 1st 6 months and complimentary feeding thereafter
Tackling indoor air pollution (by providing affordable clean indoor stoves)
Universal Immunisation Programme
Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest public health programmes targeting close of 2.67 crore newborns and 2.9 crore pregnant women annually.
It is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and largely responsible for reduction of vaccine preventable under-5 mortality rate.
Under UIP, immunization is providing free of cost against 12 vaccine preventable diseases:
Nationally against 9 diseases - Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B
Sub-nationally against 3 diseases - Rotavirus diarrhoea, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Japanese Encephalitis; of which Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine are in process of expansion while JE vaccine is provided only in endemic district
UPSC Current Affairs:Telangana to raise Rs 10,000 crores| Page 08
UPSC Syllabus: GS Mains Paper III – Indian Economy
Sub Theme: Types of borrowing | Ways and Means Advances
UPSC Current Affairs:Inner Line Permit | Page 10
UPSC Syllabus: GS Mains Paper II – Polity & Governance
Sub Theme: Inner Line Permit | UPSC
INNER LINE PERMIT IS CENTRE’S GIFT TO MANIPUR
According to Union Home Minister, granting Inner-Line Permit (ILP) to Manipur in December, 2019 with the enactment of Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA), 2019 has been the Centre’s biggest gift to Manipur since its statehood in 1972. ILP is an official document issued to allow an Indian citizen to enter protected area for a limited period. Pressure groups in the northeast view this permit as a shield against the entry of illegal immigrants as they cannot settle permanently.
Relation between Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 & Inner Line Permit
- According to Section 3 of Citizenship Amendment Act, provisions of CAA shall not apply to tribal area of Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram or Tripura as included in the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution and the area covered under "The Inner Line" notified under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873.
About Inner Line Permit & Recent Developments
- The Inner Line Permit was established by the British government under The Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulations, 1873 to safeguard tribals of eastern part of Bengal. The 1873 regulation is also known as Inner Line Regulation (ILR) or Inner Line Permit (ILP).
- The system requires outsiders to obtain a permit from the government to enter the designated territory.
- It can be issued for travel purposes solely.
- The main objective of the ILP system is to provide a special protection of the distinct identity and safeguard for the peaceful existence of the indigenous people of the state where it is applicable.
- System of ILP is applicable in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. State of Manipur was added in the Inner Line Permit System in December, 2019.
- Last Year, the Meghalaya Assembly adopted a resolution for implementing the Inner Line Permit (ILP) regime in the state, which will impose restrictions on the entry and movement of ‘outsiders’ in the hill state.
Arguments against ILP
- To understand the arguments against ILP, let us take the example of Arunachal Pradesh which has been included under ILP. However, Arunachal has recently appealed to the Central government to bring the state under the purview of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution towards protecting the rights of its indigenous peoples.
- The state government stated that they were under the wrong impression of being protected through Inner Line Permit in the state which is primarily an official travel document issued by the State government to let in an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period.
- The provisions of Article 371(H) for Arunachal Pradesh do not ensure full protection to the State’s people, their culture, indigenous tribes, or languages.
- The Sixth Schedule consists of provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.
- The North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 provided for the establishment of the States of Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and of the Union Territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh by reorganisation of the then State of Assam.
- This led to the Constitution (Twenty-seventh Amendment) Act, 1971 adding Article 371-C providing special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.
- Earlier Manipur was a Union Territory.
UPSC Current Affairs:Deep Sea Port in West Bengal| Page 03
UPSC Syllabus: GS Mains Paper III – Indian Economy
Sub Theme: Deep Sea Port | UPSC
- The West Bengal Government is set to develop Deep Sea port at Tajpur, which is located in East Midnapore District.
- The present Ports in West Bengal- Kolkata and Haldia are not deep seaports and hence cannot handle large vessels.