28th & 29th March, 2021 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu
- Allogeneic BMT - Science & Technology
- Glial Cells - Science & Technology
- Sambhar Lake (Magazine) - Environment
- Currents on Enceladus - Science & Technology
- Centre mulls unique ID for all plots of land by March 2022 - Governance
- Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary - (Environment)
- Question for the Day
UPSC Current Affairs: Allogeneic BMT | Page 07
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Science and Technology
Sub Theme: Cancer Treatment | Allogenic Stem Cell Transplant | UPSC
Context: A cancer patient got a new lease of life after the doctors at Odisha’s SCB Medical College & Hospital, Cuttack, performed the first-ever allogenic bone marrow transplant. In autologus BMT, stem cells of the patient are used for one’s cancer treatment while in allogeneic procedure, a donor donates stem cells. The surgery will create opportunity for cure of many blood and other diseases like thalassemia, sickle cell disease, aplastic anaemia, various blood cancers and other cancer diseases.
About Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation involves transferring the stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) to the patient’s body after high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation. The donated stem cells can come from either a related or an unrelated donor.
- Before an allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the patient receives a conditioning regimen of chemotherapy and, sometimes, radiation therapy. This conditioning treatment is given to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the body. This helps weaken the patient’s immune system to help keep the body from rejecting the donated cells after the transplant.
- It also allows the donor cells to move through the bloodstream to the bone marrow, where the donor cells will begin to grow and produce new blood cells, including red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells. This process is called “engraftment.”
- When a transplant is successful, the donor stem cells can replace stem cells in the bone marrow. It may also provide the only long-term cure of the patient’s disease.
- One of the benefits of allogeneic stem cell transplantation is that after the donated cells engraft in the patient, they create a new immune system. The donated cells produce white blood cells that attack any remaining cancer cells in the patient’s body.
- This is called the “graft-versus-tumor effect” and it may be even more important than the very intensive conditioning regimen that is administered to destroy the cancer cells. This benefit can only occur in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
- One complication of allogeneic transplantation is that the patient’s body—despite the treatment to suppress the immune system—may reject the donated stem cells before they are able to engraft in the bone marrow. The patient’s immune cells may see the donor’s cells as foreign and destroy them.
- Another complication of allogeneic transplantation is that the immune cells from the donor (the graft) may attack healthy cells in the patient’s body (host). This is called GRAFT VERSUS HOST Disease. The parts of the body that are most commonly damaged by GVHD are the skin, intestines, liver, muscles, joints and eyes. Graft-versus-host disease can be mild, moderate or severe. There are treatments for GVHD, but in some patients, GVHD does not respond to treatment and can be fatal.
- Allogeneic stem cell transplants for patients who are older or have overall poor health are relatively uncommon. This is because the pre-transplant conditioning therapy is generally not well tolerated by such patients, especially those with poorly functioning internal organs.
UPSC Current Affairs: GLIAL CELLS | Page 13
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Science and Technology
Sub Theme: Glial Cells | Neuroglial Cells | UPSC
Context: Researchers studying fresh brain tissue found, in the hours after death, some cells are still active and even increase their activity. The study published in Scientific Reports studied gene expression in brain tissue removed during surgery and found that gene expression in glial cells increased. After death, these cells grow and sprout extensions.
- Neuroglial cells—usually referred to simply as glial cells or glia—are quite different from nerve cells. The major distinction is that glia do not participate directly in synaptic interactions and electrical signaling, although their supportive functions help define synaptic contacts and maintain the signaling abilities of neurons.
- Glia are more numerous than nerve cells in the brain, outnumbering them by a ratio of perhaps 3 to 1. Although glial cells also have complex processes extending from their cell bodies, they are generally smaller than neurons, and they lack axons and dendrites.
- The term glia(from the Greek word meaning “glue”) reflects the nineteenth-century presumption that these cells held the nervous system together in some way. The word has survived, despite the lack of any evidence that binding nerve cells together is among the many functions of glial cells.
- Glial roles that arewell-established include maintaining the ionic milieu of nerve cells, modulating the rate of nerve signal propagation, modulating synaptic action by controlling the uptake of neurotransmitters, providing a scaffold for some aspects of neural development, and aiding in (or preventing, in some instances) recovery from neural injury.
TYPES OF GLIAL CELLS
- Microglia are the brain’s immune cells, serving to protect it against injury and disease. Microglia identify when something has gone wrong and initiate a response that removes the toxic agent and/or clears away the dead cells. Thus microglia are the brain’s protectors.
- Astrocytes are star-shaped cells that maintain a neuron’s working environment. They do this by controlling the levels of neurotransmitter around synapses, controlling the concentrations of important ions like potassium, and providing metabolic support. Astrocytes modulate how neurons communicate.
- Oligodendrocytes provide support to axons of neurons in the central nervous system, particularly those that travel long distances within the brain. They produce a fatty substance called myelin, which is wrapped around axons as a layer of insulation. Similar in function to insulation layers around power cables, the myelin sheath allows electrical messages to travel faster, and gives white matter its name—the white is the myelin wrapped around axons. Multiple sclerosis is caused by a loss of the myelin sheath around neurons.
Central Nervous System
- Ependymal cells: Ependymal cells line the spinal cord and ventricles of the brain. They are involved in creating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
- Radial glia: Radial glial cells are progenitor cells that can generate neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
Peripheral Nervous System
- Schwann cells: Similar to oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system, Schwann cells myelinate neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
- Satellite cells: Satellite cells surround neurons in the sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and help regulate the chemical environment. They may contribute to chronic pain.
- Enteric glial cells: Enteric glial cells are found in the nerves in the digestive system.
UPSC Current Affairs: Sambhar Lake (Magazine)
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Map Locations
Sub Theme: Sambhar Lake | Wetlands |UPSC
This article highlights the problems because of which the ecosystem surrounding Sambhar Lake, which is a Ramsar Site is dying slowly.
- Illegal salt mining
- Mass dying of birds
- Seasoned rivers used up by farmers through tubewells & pipelines.
- Making of surface embankments across rivers makes the area dry.
- Tented heritage resorts and metre gauge railway line has further destroyed the ecosystem.
Rivers – Samaod, Khari, Mantha, Khandela, Medtha & Roopangarh.
UPSC Current Affairs: Enceladus- Saturn’s Moon | Page 01
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Space Technology
Sub Theme: Enceladus | Saturn Moon | UPSC
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn, about a tenth of that of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Enceladus is mostly covered by fresh, clean ice, making it one of the most reflective bodies of the Solar System.
For decades, scientists didn’t know why Enceladus was the brightest world in the solar system.
Cassini found that both the fresh coating on its surface, and icy material in the E ring originate from vents connected to a global subsurface saltwater ocean that might host hydrothermal vents.
Cassini discovered that geyser-like jets spew water vapor and ice particles from an underground ocean beneath the icy crust of Enceladus.
With its global ocean, unique chemistry and internal heat, Enceladus has become a promising lead in our search for worlds where life could exist.
UPSC Current Affairs: Centre mulls unique ID for all plots of land by March 2022 | Page 01
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Polity and Governance
Sub Theme: Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP) | UPSC
The Government has launched the "Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP)" in 2008.
Objective: Updated land records, integration between textual and spatial records, inter-connectivity between revenue and registration, Reduce litigations in land ownership.
Components: Computerisation of Land Records, Survey of Land, Computerisation of Registration.
Implementation: State Governments with financial and technical support from Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development
About Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN)
Details: Component under DILRMP; Launched in 10 states and will be rolled out across the country by end of March 2022.
Objective: Provide Unique 14-digit Alphanumeric ID for all the land parcels in India. ("Aadhaar for the Land").
How?: Combine longitude and latitude to update the land records and provide unique ID; Integrate ULPIN with Aadhaar and Revenue Records
Implementation: Department of Land Resources- Nodal Agency.
- Prevent land frauds
- Modernization of Land records
- Sharing of land records across multiple departments
- Reduce Litigations in Land ownership
- Easier process for Land Acquisition
UPSC Current Affairs: 27 migratory birds found dead at wildlife sanctuary in Himachal | Page 10
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Map Location
Sub Theme: Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary | UPSC
About Pong Dam Wildlife Sanctuary
- Location: Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh
- Created in 1975 as a dam built across the Beas River
- Declared as a wildlife sanctuary in 1983.
- Declared as a Ramsar Site