26 April, 2021 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu
- No volunteer list under cyber scheme Security
- Endeavor, leadership and the story of a nation (World History, International Relations)
- What happened to Armenians in 1915? (International Relations)
- Question for the Day
‘No volunteer list under cyber security scheme | Page 08
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper III – Security
Sub Theme: Cyber Security | UPSC
UPSC Current Affairs: Endeavour, leadership and then story of a nation | Page 06
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper I – History
Sub Theme: Bangladesh Liberation war I | UPSC
Context: The ultimate accolade for India’s role in creating Bangladesh is that today, it is a relatively prosperous country.
Bangladesh Liberation War Background
- since partition of India the residents of East Pakistan felt their culture and status were being undermined by the forces in West Pakistan.
- The Language Movement, 1948
- Disparities in the economic status of both sides
- The Bengali attempt to increase their status and earn respect for their language was met with severe suppression from the authorities.
- In 1970 elections, Mujibur Rahman’s Awami League won a clear majority. But, the military in Pakistan was opposed to him becoming the country’s supremo.
- Yahya Khan’s military government was unwilling to give up power to Mujib.
- 25th March 1971, the Pakistani army started the infamous ‘Operation Searchlight’
- West Pakistan authorities would not give legitimate power to Mujib, he declared the country’s independence on 26 March.
- Guerrilla war started between the Pakistani army and their collaborators who were called Razakars and the Bangladeshi liberation forces ‘Mukti Bahini’.
- Pakistani forces started attacking civilians in Bangladesh, millions of refugees came to India
- Many Bengali soldiers from the Pakistan army defected to the Bengali side to fight for independence.
- Indian forces were helping by giving arms and training to the soldiers of the Mukti Bahini.
- India entered into combat officially on 3 December 1971 when Pakistan attacked Indian Air Force Bases.
- 16 December 1971, Pakistan surrendered. India won the war and Bangladesh became a free country.
- India played a key part in Bangladesh achieving recognition from other countries of the world.
- PM Indira Gandhi had toured several countries to publicise the atrocities conducted by the Pakistani military in Bangladesh. This ensured that India’s entry into the war did not cause international rebuke and also helped the new nation gain quick international recognition.
To ensure a smooth transition, in 1972 the Simla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan. The treaty ensured that Pakistan recognised the independence of Bangladesh in exchange for the return of the Pakistani PoWs. India treated all the PoWs in strict accordance with the Geneva Convention, rule 1925. It released more than 93,000 Pakistani PoWs in five months.
UPSC Current Affairs: What happened to Armenians in 1915| Page 13
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper I – World History
Sub Theme: World War | UPSC
What happened to Armenians in 1915?
Context: USA President Joe Biden’s officially recognised the mass killings of Armenians by Ottoman Turks as an ‘act of genocide’. This could infuriate Turkey.
Background: Up to 1.5 million Armenians are estimated to have been killed in the early stage of the First world war within the territories of the Ottoman Empire. In 2019, the US congress (Parliament of US) passed resolutions calling the slaughter a genocide, but the Donald Trump administration stopped short of officially calling it so.
Why were Armenians killed?
Sequence of events:
- Decline of ottoman empire in late 19th century.
- Russia-Turkish war of 1877-78 raise the enmity between Turkish and Armenians, who were supported by Russia.
- Treaty of Berlin dictated terms to Ottomans to provide reforms for Armenian people.
- Treaty led to the attacks on Armenian people from Turks and Kurds.
- Post 1908, attacks on Ethnic minority began at greater pace.
- Defeat of Turks in Battle of Sarikamish (during World War 1) was blamed on Armenian. This led to further intensification of genocide over Armenians.
- On fear of security from Russian support to Armenian, Ottoman Government passed a legislation to deport Armenian via Syrian desert. This killed many Armenians.
After the defeat of Ottoman in World War 1, Armenian authorities took revenge measures and executed many officials. But Armenian resistance fighters under the banner of Operation Nemesis continued to hunt down Ottoman officials.
As of now, Turkey (centre of erstwhile Ottoman Empire) has acknowledged that atrocities were committed against Armenians, but denies it was a genocide (which comes with legal implications) and challenges the estimates that 1.5 million were killed.
Larger question: Was it a Genocide?
This term was coined by the Raphael Lemkin. According to Article II of the UN Convention on Genocide of December 1948, genocide has been described as carrying out acts intended “to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group”.
Between 1914 to 1922, Armenian population fell from 2 million to 3,87,000 only. There is apprehension that this was due to 1.5 million Armenians who were genocide.
Therefore, as of now there are only historians claims and no actual proof about such genocide.
However, it is true that many Armenians were killed as part of ethnic conflicts.