03 May, 2021 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu

  • Optional counselling announcement
  • Left, TMC, BJP buck anti-incumbency; DMK bags T.N (Society)
  • A second wave of the virus and another exodus (Economy)
  • Contempt not initiated, HC tells Centre (Polity)
  • Question for the Day

Prelims Quiz

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    UPSC Current Affairs:  LEFT TMC BJP BUCK ANTI-INCUMBENCY | Page 01

    UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper I, II: Indian polity and Indian society

    Sub Theme:  regionalism | UPSC

    LEFT TMC BJP BUCK ANTI-INCUMBENCY

    Regionalism/Sub-nationalism

    • Regionalism is a political ideology which seeks to increase the political power, influence and/or self-determination of the people of one or more subnational regions.
    • Regionalism can be explained as an ‘insider-outsider’ thought process where the loyalties are tied to the region of origin
    • In a positive sense –
      •  it encourages people to develop a sense of brotherhood and oneness which seeks to protect the interests of a particular region and promotes the welfare and development of the state and its people.
      • concerned with increasing the political power and influence of the residents of a particular region to improve the regional economy through better allocation of resources, regional development, and better implementation of local policies. 
    • In the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one’s region which is a great threat to the unity and integrity of the country.

    Roots of regionalism is in India’s manifold diversity of languages, cultures, ethnic groups, communities, religions and so on, and encouraged by the regional concentration of those identity markers, and fueled by a sense of regional deprivation.

    For many centuries, India remained the land of many lands, regions, cultures and traditions. For instance, southern India (the home of Dravidian cultures), which is itself a region of many regions, is evidently different from the north, the west, the central and the northeast.

    Even the east of India is different from the North-East of India comprising today seven constituent units of Indian federation with the largest concentration of tribal people.

    Regionalism has remained perhaps the most potent force in Indian politics ever since independence (1947), if not before. It has remained the main basis of many regional political parties which have governed many states since the late 1960s.

    Three clear patterns can be identified in the post-independence phases of accommodation of regional identity through statehood.

    • First, in the 1950s and 1960s, intense (ethnic) mass mobilisation, often taking on a violent character, was the main force behind the state’s response with an institutional package for statehood. Andhra Pradesh in India’s south showed the way. The fast unto death in 1952 of the legendary (Telugu) leader Potti Sriramulu for a state for the Teleguspeakers out of the composite Madras Presidency moved an otherwise reluctant Jawaharlal Nehru, a top nationalist leader and it was followed by State reorganization commission under Fazal Ali paving way for State Reorganization Act, 1956.
    • Second, in the 1970s and 1980s, the main focus of reorganization was India’s North-east. The basis of reorganization was tribal insurgency for separation and statehood. The main institutional response of the Union government was the North-eastern States Reorganization Act, 1971 which upgraded the Union Territories of Manipur and Tripura, and the Sub-State of Meghalaya to full statehood, and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (then Tribal Districts) to Union Territories. The latter became states in 1986. Goa (based on Konkani language (8th Schedule)), which became a state in 1987, was the sole exception.
    • Third, the movements for the three new states (created in 2000)—Chhattisgarh out of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand out of Bihar and Uttaranchal out of Uttar Pradesh— were long-drawn but became vigorous in the 1990s. And the most recent one, we can see with the division of Andhra Pradesh, giving a separate Telangana, which started in 1950s.

     

    UPSC Current Affairs: Second wave of virus and another exodus| Page 04

    UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper I, III – Indian economy and social issues

    Sub Theme:  Internal migration and economic issues | UPSC

    Every economy is confronted with certain economic problems. Some of them may be external, while some may be internal. Among all the internal problems, unemployment gains huge importance both in economic theories as well as in terms of policy prescriptions. Every individual wishes to get employed to have a source of more or less steady flow of incomes. Incomes provide purchasing power to individuals and hence they can improve their standard of living. So, if an individual cannot find job in her current location, then she can decide to move out of that place and relocate to some other region in search of employment. This phenomenon is regarded as ‘labour migration’.

    If an individual migrate to attain improved standard of living by getting high wage/salary then it is called migration due to ‘pull’ factor. On the other hand, individuals often migrate to repay the old debt at source area, which is called ‘push’ factor.

    Trends

    A large number of tribals, mainly from drought prone areas of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra, migrate to work in construction, tile factory, brick kiln and crop cutting in Maharashtra

    Unlike male migration a continuous increase in female migration is observed irrespective of place of residence. Although preponderance of female in migration process is largely attributed to marriage

    Economic Survey of India 2017:

    • It estimates that the magnitude of inter-state migration in India was close to 9 million annually between 2011 and 2016.
    • Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are the biggest source states, followed closely by Madhya Pradesh, Punjab,  and Rajasthan.
    • The major destination states are Maharashtra, UP, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
    • Positive impacts on the origin location
    • Unemployment can reduce as there is less competition for jobs.
    • Less pressure on natural resources including food and water.
    • When migrants return, they bring new skills and knowledge.
    • There is less pressure on services such as education and healthcare.
    • Money is often sent back to family and friends (known as remittances), boosting the local economy.
    • Negative impacts on the origin location
    • There are fewer people to pay tax, so it could increase.
    • Fewer skilled migrants, as those with skills and education, tend to be the people who migrate. This is also known as brain-drain.
    • Brain drain could have a negative impact on economic development.
    • Families separated by borders.
    • There are often gender imbalances, as it is often males who move.
    • On destination location
    • Positive impacts
    • Workers who will work for low wages and are prepared to do jobs that local people do not want.
    • Increased cultural diversity.
    • Skills gaps are filled.
    • Boost to the local economy.
    • Government tax revenues increase.
    • Public services can benefit from an influx of qualified staff e.g. doctors and nurses.
    • Immigrant groups can increase birth rates.
    • Negative impacts 
    • Pressure on public services such as schools, housing and healthcare
    • Overcrowding
    • Language and cultural barriers can exist
    • Increased levels of pollution
    • Increased pressure on natural resources
    • Racial tensions and discrimination
    • Local people can miss out on jobs due to increased competition from migrants.
    • Migrant groups may not assimilate into local communities.
    • Gender imbalance – usually more men migrate.

     

    UPSC Current Affairs: Contempt a not initiated; HC tells Centre | Page 03

    UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper II – Indian Judiciary and Governance

    Sub Theme: Contempt of Court | UPSC

    Context: High Court of Delhi has not initiated any contempt of court proceedings against Centra government officials while responding to the Centre’s fresh application to modify the contempt portion on its May 1 order.

    Background: The High Court had on 1st of May, warned the Centre that it would consider initiating contempt proceedings against its officers if they failed to supply the allocated 490 metric tonnes of oxygen allocated to Delhi.

    Why? Delhi is facing worst crises of oxygen deficiency to fight the Pandemic.

    What is the relevance of the article: Contempt of Court.

    Contempt of court

    What is Contempt of Court?

    The expression ‘contempt of court’ has not been defined by the Constitution. As per the Contempt of Courts Act 1971, contempt refers to the offence of showing disrespect to the dignity or authority of a court. The act divides contempt into civil and criminal contempt.

    • Civil contempt: It is wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or

    other processes of a court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to the court.

    • Criminal contempt: It is any publication which may result in:
    1. Scandalising the court by lowering its authority.
    2. Interference in the due course of a judicial proceeding.
    3. an obstruction in the administration of justice.

    Constitutional Provisions

    • Article 129: Grants Supreme Court the power to punish for contempt of itself.
    • Article 142(2): Enables the Supreme Court to investigate and punish any person for its

    contempt.

    • Article 215: Grants every High Court the power to punish for contempt of itself.

    Arguments in favour

    • Concept of contempt exists to insulate the institution from unfair attacks and prevent a

    sudden fall in the judiciary’s reputation in the public eye.

    • SC has said that these tweets “brought the administration of justice in disrepute and are

    capable of undermining the dignity and authority of the institution and the office of the Chief

    Justice of India in particular”

    • Provision of contempt safeguards the interests of the public, if the authority of the Court is

    denigrated and public confidence in the administration of justice is weakened or eroded.

    • Contempt power is needed to punish wilful disobedience to court orders (civil contempt), as

    well as interference in the administration of justice and overt threats to judges.

    Arguments against

    • The U.K. Law Commission in a 2012 report recommended the abolition of the law of

    contempt. It said that the law was originally intended to maintain a “blaze of glory” around

    courts. It said that the purpose of the offence was not “confined to preventing the public from

    getting the wrong idea about judges... but that where there are shortcomings, it is equally

    important to prevent the public from getting the right idea”. England abolished the offence of

    “scandalizing the court” in 2013.

    • The definition of criminal contempt in India is extremely wide and can be easily invoked.

    Justice V.R. Krishna Ayer famously termed the law of contempt as having a vague and

    wandering jurisdiction, with uncertain boundaries.

    • Contempt law, regardless of public good, may unwittingly trample upon civil liberties.
    • A law for criminal contempt is completely asynchronous with our democratic system which

    recognises freedom of speech and expression as a fundamental right.

    • Surely, any efforts to artificially prevent free speech will only exacerbate the situation further.

    As was pointed out in the landmark U.S. case of Bridges v. California (1941), “an enforced

    silence would probably engender resentment, suspicion, and contempt for the bench, not the

    respect it seeks”.

    • An excessively loose use of the test of ‘loss of public confidence’, combined with a liberal

    exercise of suo motu powers, can be dangerous, for it can amount to the Court signalling that

    it will not suffer any kind of critical commentary.

    • In an era in which social media are full of critics, commentators and observers who deem it

    necessary to air their views in many unrestrained and uninhibited ways, the higher judiciary

    should not really be expending its time and energy invoking its power to punish for contempt

    of itself.

    • It has been recognised by jurists that each time the offence of ‘scandalising’ the court or

    lowering the court’s authority is invoked, some tend to believe that the court has something

    to hide.

    • The Court’s international institutional standing will be lowered if it takes up this case in this

    manner at this time.

    Need to review the contempt law in India

    • In contemporary times, it is more important that courts are seen to be concerned about

    accountability, that allegations are scotched by impartial probes rather than threats of

    contempt action, and processes are transparent.

    • The test for contempt needs to be evaluated. If such a test ought to exist at all, it should be

    whether the contemptuous remarks in question obstruct the Court from functioning.

    It should not be allowed to be used as a means to prevent any and all criticism of an institution. Canada ties its test for contempt to real, substantial, and immediate dangers to the

    administration

    • Unfortunately, in a system in which judges are not expected to disclose the reason for recusing

    themselves, and even charges of sexual harassment are not credibly investigated, it is only the

    fear of scandalising the judiciary that restrains much of the media and the public from a more

    rigorous examination of the functioning of the judiciary.

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