04 May, 2021 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu
- Optional Subjects related announcement
- OPEC share slid as Indiaâs oil imports shrank 11.8% (International Relation)
- Factory output growth decelerates: PMI (Economy)
- 7 Myanmar refugees can approach UNHCR (International Relation)
- A One Health approach that targets people, animals (Social issues)
- Question for the Day
UPSC Current Affairs: Purchasing Managers' index (PMI)| Page 14
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper III – Indian economy
Sub Theme: important indices | UPSC
Purchasing Managers' index (PMI)
- PMI and is considered as an indicator of the economic health, business momentum in the industrial sector of an economy and investor sentiments about the manufacturing sector.
- In PMI data, a reading above 50 points indicates economic expansion, while a reading below 50 points shows the contraction of economic activities.
- The PMI is constructed separately for manufacturing and services sector. But the manufacturing sector holds more importance.
- India’s PMI went down to 47.9
Origin of PMI
- The Institute for Supply Management (ISM) based in U.S., originally developed PMI.
- The ISM is a non-profit group founded in 1915.
Publishing Agency in India
- For India, the PMI Data is published by Japanese firm Nikkei but compiled and constructed by Market Economics, HSBC.
Major Indicators of PMI
- 5 major indicators are used: new orders, inventory levels, production, supplier deliveries and the employment environment.
UPSC Current Affairs: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries | Page 14
UPSC Syllabus: Prelims; international organisation, Mains – GS Paper III – International trade
Sub Theme: OPEC | UPSC
ABOUT Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
- OPEC is a permanent intergovernmental organization of 14 oil-exporting developing nations that coordinates and unifies the petroleum policies of its Member Countries.
- It was created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
- Currently it has 14 Members: Algeria, Angola, Congo, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, and United Arab Emirates.
- OPEC's objective is to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic, and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry.
- OPEC has it headquarter at Vienna, Austria.
- OPEC+ is a group of OPEC countries and its allies.
- It also includes non-OPEC oil producing countries. They are Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Brunei, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mexico, Oman, Russia, Sudan, and South Sudan.
UPSC Current Affairs: 7 Myanmar refugees can approach UNHCR | Page 09
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper II, III – Indian national security, migration issues international organisation
Sub Theme: UNHRC | UPSC
Context: The High Court of Manipur on Monday allowed seven Myanmar nationals, who entered India secretly following the February military coup, to travel to New Delhi to seek protection from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).
They had been hiding in the border town Moreh until they were brought to Imphal following an order of the High Court on April 20.
Observation of the Court
- The seven Myanmarese individuals in question are not 'migrants', as normally understood, but are 'asylum seekers' and that they did not enter our country with the clear-cut and deliberate intention of breaking and violating our domestic laws.
- Though India is not a party to the UN 1951 Refugee Convention or its 1967, protocol, India is a party to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 1966.
- Certain protections are guaranteed under Articles 14 and 21 of our Constitution even to those who are not Indian citizens. Even a 'foreigner' is entitled to the protection of life and personal liberty under Article 21.
- The far-reaching and myriad protection afforded by Article 21 of our Constitution, as interpreted and adumbrated by our Supreme Court time and again, would indubitably encompass the right of non-refoulement.
- Though India has no clear refugee protection policy or framework, it does grant asylum to a large number of refugees from nearby countries and that India usually respects the UNHCR's recognition of the status of such asylum seekers, mainly from Afghanistan and Myanmar.
Non-refoulement is the principle under international law (including 1951 Refugee Convention) that a person fleeing from persecution from his own country should not be forced to return.
India is a signatory to the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, which was adopted by 193 countries in 2016.
Indian has signed UN anti-torture convention having ‘non-refoulement policy’ (though not ratified). India is one of only five countries that have yet to ratify it.
India is a signatory of the Bangkok principles. Article III of the Bangkok Principles states that “the person cannot be expelled if there is a possibility that he might be exposed to some danger on account of race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.”
In practice India is one of the leading refugee-receiving countries. Refugees include Sri Lankan Tamils, Tibetans from China, Chin minorities from Burma/Myanmar, and Hindus from Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Courts establishing the principle of non-refoulment
In case of Ktaer Abbas Habib Al Qutaifi v. Union of India & Ors., non-refoulement was recognized under Article 21 by the Gujarat High Court.
In NHRC v. State of Arunachal Pradesh, the apex court again emphasized on protection of rights of the refugees in India to preserve the constitutional culture. The court in this case directed not to refoule the chakma refugees who were the nationals of the Bangladesh on the basis of principle of non-refoulement.
Re-establishing the position of nonrefoulement, the Bombay High Court in case of Syed Ata Mohammadi v. Union of India, pointed out that the Iranian refugees cannot be ostracized to the Iran where they have fear of persecution.
The 1951 Convention on Refugee Status provides two grounds for the limitations of the principle of non-refoulement:
- National Security
- Public Order
In case of the Maiwand’s Trust of Afghan Human Freedom Petitioners v. State of Punjab and others, the apex court stayed the expulsion of the Andaman Island and the Burmese refugees from India as there were no reasonable apprehensions against the security of the India
Refugee Status Determination is the legal or administrative process by which governments or UNHCR determine whether a person seeking international protection is considered a refugee under international, regional or national law.
In a rare dual system, refugee status determination (RSD) in India is divided between the government and UNHCR.
- Asylum seekers arriving from non-neighbouring countries, plus Myanmar, are required to approach UNHCR for the determination of their status and for documentation. UNHCR in India conducts RSD for them in line with the 1951 Refugee Convention (to which India is not a signatory) and its own internal guidelines, sharing the list of asylum seekers and refugees it has recognised with the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
- However, UNHCR is not permitted to set up registration centres at the border places. The only office of UNHCR that conducts RSD is in New Delhi. The onus is on arriving asylum seekers to find out about the asylum process and travel to New Delhi.
- Those from neighbouring South Asian countries, with whom the State has sensitive relations, are required to approach the MHA directly. The procedure for doing so and the decision criteria adopted by the MHA in such cases are not publicly available.
UPSC Current Affairs: A one health approach that targets people, animals| Page 06
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper II, III – Health security
Sub Theme: one health | UPSC
The advent of antibiotics ignited the hope of elimination of infectious diseases in humans and animals.
However, this did not happen because of two reasons:
- Most of the germs have acquired the capacity to resist the action of affordable antibiotics. This phenomenon is known as antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
- Irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals.
The inability of antibiotics to treat patients and animals is wreaking havoc on human health, nutrition safety and economies. The long-term impact of AMR is almost comparable to that of the COVID-19 pandemic. AMR is estimated to cause 10 million deaths annually by 2050, unless concerted actions are initiated now. It will result in 7.5 % reduction in livestock production and negatively impact the global GDP by 3.5%.
What are the solutions to the AMR menace?
- Discovery of new drugs, before the emergence of resistance in germs
- The first is an expensive and unpredictable process.
- Since 1984, no new class of antibiotics has been developed. The estimated cost for developing a new antibiotic exceeds $1 billion.
- With rapid development of resistance, the life of new antibiotics becomes limited and the return on investment on new molecules gets diminished.
- This discourages the pharmaceutical industry to invest in these initiatives. The world is left with only one option: to use the available antibiotics carefully to ensure their efficacy for as long as possible.
- Prudent use of available antibiotics
- The rational use of antibiotics in humans, animals, and agriculture warrants coordinated action in all sectors.
- These multi-sectoral, multidisciplinary and multi-institutional actions constitute the ‘One Health’ approach.
What is One Health Approach
- One Health should not be construed as a standalone or new programme that has to be built de novo.
- This endeavour utilises existing expertise and infrastructure in various sectors with a focus on inter-sectoral coordination, collaboration, and communication.
- The purpose of One Health is to provide a formal platform for experts to plan and work together towards shared objectives.
- Implementation of One Health warrants a strong and continuous national narrative on zoonoses.
- It advocates a multi-sectoral response to public health problems, particularly pandemics, as also to address issues related to AMR.
- The approach supports focussed actions on the human-animal-environment interface for the prevention, detection and response to the public health events that influence global health and food security. AMR is one of the biggest challenges to human and animal health.
- There is a need to optimally utilise emerging technologies to improve human health and development. One Health has been acknowledged as the optimum approach to counter the impact of AMR and future pandemics and must be adopted expeditiously.
The relevance of One Health?
- This has gained currency across the world as an efficient and cost-effective response to AMR and several other challenges, especially endemic zoonoses (diseases transmitted between animals and humans) and pandemics.
- It is reinforced by the fact that all the epidemics in the current millennium (SARS, MERS, bird flu and COVID-19) have originated from animals because of unwanted excursion of humans into animal domains.
- The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the urgency of implementing One Health. India’s National Action Plan on AMR is an excellent example of the One Health approach and can be used as a guiding document to develop a workable road map for the country to respond to other similar public health challenges.