06 June, 2021 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu
- First Human infection of H10N3 (Science and technology)
- Chinese enclave in Sri Lanka (National Security) (International Relation)
- Global Minimum Corporate Tax (Economy and international Relation)
- Bose-Einstein Condensation (Science and Technology)
- Scheme for revision (Soil Health Card)
- Question for the Day
UPSC Current Affairs: A new bird flu variant infected human |Page – 11
UPSC Syllabus: GS Paper III- science and technology
Sub Theme: India and its Neighbourhood | UPSC
UPSC Current Affairs: A Chinese enclave in Sri Lanka |Page – 11
UPSC Syllabus: GS Paper II – International Relations and related Maps
Sub Theme: India and its Neighbourhood | UPSC
UPSC Current Affairs: Global Minimum Corporate Tax| Page – 1
UPSC Syllabus: GS Paper III- Indian Economy | GS Paper II- International Relations
Sub Theme: Tax reforms | UPSC
UPSC Current Affairs: Bose-Einstein condensation | Page 10
UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper III – Science & Technology
Sub Theme: Fundamental Physics | UPSC
Emergence of order from chaos in turbulent systems and Bose-Einstein condensation
In Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) particles condense to the lowest energy level when temperature is taken to very low values. The particles in any system ordinarily are in different quantum states, exhibiting the state of complete chaos. As the particles condensate into BEC, all particles come to the same quantum state from different quantum states, leading to the state of order.
In short, during the transition to the BEC there is transition from the state of chaos to the state of order.
Bose-Einstein condensation and Aerospace engineering Researchers from IIT Madras have come up with an understanding of the emergence of order in chaotic systems by drawing an analogy with Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC).
An important phenomenon studied in aerospace engineering is the emergence of order from chaos in turbulent systems that leads to detrimental large amplitude fluctuations. For this reason, it is important to be able to predict and understand such happenings and avoid them.
During chaotic movement, there are several possible orbits, and so even as the trajectory moves towards one orbit, it is attracted to a different orbit, and therefore does not stick to any one orbit.
However, as the parameter is tuned and the system makes a transition towards order, the number of orbits is reduced and therefore, the trajectory gets caught in a few stable orbits. The researchers label this process a type of “condensation.”
Using measures from cycle networks and using analogy with BEC researchers were able to develop ‘early warning indicators’ that identify the onset of intermittency and hence forewarn the occurrence of thermoacoustic instability in the combustor.
Form exam perspective we must know the basics of Bose-Einstein condensate.
Bose Einstein Condensates (BEC) NASA Scientists recently observed the fifth state of matter in space for the first time as part of Bose Einstein
Condensates (BEC) Experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Solids, liquids, gases and plasma are the other four states of matter.
This state was first predicted, generally, in 1924–1925 by Albert Einstein following and crediting a pioneering paper by Satyendra Nath Bose on the new field now known as quantum statistics.
In 1924, Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose wrote to Albert Einstein, sharing his insights about an existing physical law describing how light and matter interact.
BEC is a super cooled gas that no longer behaves as individual atoms and particles, but rather an entity in a single quantum state.
The most intriguing property of BECs is that they can slow down light. In 1998 Lene Hau of Harvard University and her colleagues slowed light traveling through a BEC from its speed in vacuum of 3 × 108 metres per second to a mere 17 metres per second.
In 2001, physicists for the first time managed to stop light in a vapor of rubidium gas.
- Tests of general relativity - Light can be variable in speed and frequency.
- Applying Quantum mechanics at macroscopic level.
- Quantum computing
- Searches for dark energy, dark matter and gravitational waves.
- Spacecraft navigation.
- Prospecting for subsurface minerals on the moon and other planetary bodies.
UPSC Current Affairs: Soil Health Card scheme (add-on)
UPSC Syllabus: Mains: GS paper III – E-technology in the aid of farmers
Sub Theme: Soil Health card Scheme
What is a Soil Health Card?
SHC is a printed report that a farmer will be handed over for each of his holdings. It will contain the status of his soil with respect to 12 parameters, namely N,P,K (Macro-nutrients) ; S (Secondary- nutrient) ; Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Bo (Micro - nutrients) ; and pH, EC, OC (Physical parameters). Based on this, the SHC will also indicate fertilizer recommendations and soil amendment required for the farm.
How can a farmer use a SHC?
The card will contain an advisory based on the soil nutrient status of a farmer’s holding. It will show recommendations on dosage of different nutrients needed. Further, it will advise the farmer on the fertilizers and their quantities he should apply, and also the soil amendments that he should undertake, so as to realize optimal yields.
Will the farmer get a card every year and for every crop?
It will be made available once in a cycle of 2 years, which will indicate the status of soil health of a farmer’s holding for that particular period. The SHC given in the next cycle of 2 years will be able to record the changes in the soil health for that subsequent period.
What are the norms of sampling?
Soil samples will be drawn in a grid of 2.5 ha in irrigated area and 10 ha in rain- fed area with the help of GPS tools and revenue maps.
Who will draw the soil sample?
The State Government will collect samples through the staff of their Department of Agriculture or through the staff of an outsourced agency. The State Government may also involve the students of local Agriculture / Science Colleges.
What is the ideal time for soil sampling?
Soil Samples are taken generally two times in a year, after harvesting of Rabi and Kharif Crop respectively or when there is no standing crop in the field.
How will soil samples be collected from a farmer’s field?
Soil Samples will be collected by a trained person from a depth of 15-20 cm by cutting the soil in a “V” shape. It will be collected from four corners and the centre of the field and mixed thoroughly and a part of this picked up as a sample. Areas with shade will be avoided. The sample chosen will be bagged and coded. It will then be transferred to soil test laboratory for analysis.
What is a soil test laboratory?
It is a facility for testing the soil sample for 12 parameters as indicated in reply to question number 2. This facility can be static or mobile or it can even be portable to be used in remote areas.
Who and Where will the soil sample be tested?
The soil sample will be tested as per the approved standards for all the agreed 12 parameters in the following way:
1.At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture and by their own staff.
2.At the STLs owned by the Department of Agriculture but by the staff of the outsourced agency.
3.At the STLs owned by the outsourced agency and by their staff.
4.At ICAR Institutions including KVKs and SAUs.
5.At the laboratories of the Science Colleges/Universities by the students under supervision of a Professor/ Scientist.
What is the payment per sample?
A sum of Rs. 190 per soil sample is provided to State Governments. This covers the cost of collection of soil sample, its test, generation and distribution of soil health card to the farmer.