18 November, 2021 - Daily Current Affairs Analysis & MCQs - The Daily News Simplified from The Hindu

  • Weekly Mains Answer Writing Announcement
  • Enforcement Directorate Security
  • Maldives rejects "India out" campaign – International Relations
  • Righting Historical Wrongs - Scheduled Tribes Social Justice & Governance
  • Global Climate Risk Index Environment
  • SEBI introduces Investor Charter Economy
  • Question for the Day

Prelims Quiz


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    UPSC Current Affairs: Enforcement Directorate | Page – 9

    UPSC Syllabus: Mains – GS Paper II– Issues relating to Health

    Sub Theme: Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission | AB-PMJAY | UPSC 
    Enforcement Directorate of India:

    Directorate of Enforcement is a Multi-Disciplinary Organization mandated with the task of enforcing the provisions of two special fiscal lawsForeign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) and Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA). Besides directly recruiting personnel, the Directorate also draws officers from different Investigating Agencies, viz., Customs & Central Excise, Income Tax, Police, etc. on deputation.

    1. The origin of this Directorate goes back to 1st May, 1956, when an ‘Enforcement Unit’ was formed, in Department of Economic Affairs, for handling Exchange Control Laws violations under Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1947 (FERA ’47); this Unit was headed by a Legal Service Officer, as Director of Enforcement, assisted by an Officer drawn on deputation from RBI, besides 03 Inspectors of Special Police Establishment; besides Delhi Hqrs., to start with, there were 02 branches – at Bombay and Calcutta.

    In the year 1957, this Unit was renamed as ‘Enforcement Directorate’, and another branch was opened at Madras. The administrative control of the Directorate was transferred from Department of Economic Affairs to Department of Revenue in 1960. With the passage of time, FERA’47 was repealed and replaced by FERA, 1973. For a short period of 04 years (1973 – 1977), the Directorate remained under the administrative jurisdiction of Department of Personnel & Administrative Reforms.

    1. With the onset of the process of economic liberalization, FERA, 1973, which was a regulatory law was repealed and in its place, effective 1st June, 2000, a new law – Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) came into operation. Further, in tune with the International Anti Money Laundering regime, Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 (PMLA) was enacted, and entrusted for its enforcement to the Directorate, w.e.f. 01.07.2005.
    1. Carved in the role of a multi-dimensional Organisation, the Directorate enforces two laws; FEMA, a Civil Law having quasi-judicial powers, for investigating suspected contraventions of the Exchange Control Laws and Regulations with the powers to impose penalties on those adjudged guilty and PMLA, a Criminal Law, whereby the Officers are empowered to conduct enquiries to locate, provisionally attach/confiscate assets derived from acts of Schedules Offences besides arresting and prosecuting the Money Launderers.

    The main functions of the Directorate are as under

    1. Investigate contraventions of the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999(FEMA) which came into force with effect from 1.6.2000. Contraventions of FEMA are dealt with by way of adjudication by designated authorities of ED and penalties upto three times the sum involved can be imposed.
    2. Investigate offences of money laundering under the provisions of Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002(PMLA) which came into force with effect from 1.7.2005 and to take actions of attachment and confiscation of property if the same is determined to be proceeds of crime derived from a Scheduled Offence under PMLA, and to prosecute the persons involved in the offence of money laundering. There are 156 offences under 28 statutes which are Scheduled Offences under PMLA.
    3. Adjudicate Show Cause Notices issued under the repealed Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (FERA) upto 31.5.2002 for the alleged contraventions of the Act which may result in imposition of penalties. Pursue prosecutions launched under FERA in the concerned courts.
    4. Processing cases of fugitive/s from India under Fugitive Economic Offenders Act, 2018. The objective of this Act is to provide for measures to deter fugitive economic offenders from evading the process of law in India by staying outside the jurisdiction of Indian Courts and to preserve the sanctity of the rule of law in India.
    5. Sponsor cases of preventive detention under Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974(COFEPOSA) in regard to contraventions of FEMA.
    6. Render cooperation to foreign countries in matters relating to money laundering and restitution of assets under the provisions of PMLA and to seek cooperation in such matters.



    UPSC Current Affairs:Righting Historical Wrongs - Scheduled Tribes | Page 7

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Polity & Governance; Rights Issues | Mains: GS Paper-II - Polity & Governance + Social Justice

    Sub Theme: PESA | Tribals Rights | Scheduled Areas | Fifth Schedule | UPSC 

    Context: The article highlights about the plight of tribals (Adivasis) when they are displaced from their areas because of developmental projects (dams, mines, industries) and are neither rehabilitated nor provided enough compensation by the state. In this backdrop, let us go through the laws of India which safeguards their rights and interests. Also let us look into the role of Gram Sabha in safeguarding their tights and interests.   

    1. Exploitation of Irular Community

    The Tamil movie Jai Bhim portrayed the discrimination experienced by the Irula community, the second largest of the 36 tribal communities in Tamil Nadu. They are traditional healers, snake and rat catchers, but now primarily migrate to different places to work in brick kilns, rice mills, etc. Like many Adivasi groups in India, the Irulas also continue to suffer the stigma of criminality due to the Habitual Offenders Act, 1952, which replaced the colonial Criminal Tribes Act, 1871. This law is a “crude colonial construct”, which should be repealed at the earliest.  

    1. Title Rights under FRA not given until 2016

    The film generated a lot of discussion on the violence and negligence that the Irulas face, but not on the structural issues with governance and the negation of tribal communities’ concerns. For instance, a study by Jocelyn I. Lee and Steven A. Wolf in 2018 on the rate of the formal distribution of rights claims under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, commonly known as the Forest Rights Act, found that no title rights were issued in Tamil Nadu because of a ban on the issuance of titles by the High Court till early 2016. The ban was stayed only after the intervention of the Supreme Court.       

    1. Development-induced displacement of tribals

    The “development-induced displacement” trajectory adopted by the country has often been at the expense of the Scheduled Tribes (STs), either by way of exclusion or forced “inclusion” in a “mainstream” that is completely alien to their “world view” through what the Xaxa Committee in 2014 had called the “ashramisation” of the tribal. Displacement due to the encroachment and appropriation of land inhabited by STs, which are generally rich in forest and mineral resources, has been further intensified in the post-liberalisation period due to corporate interests. Hence, the makers of the Constitution, even while underlining the importance of sharing the values of modernity with the STs, who have a great deal of heterogeneity among themselves, had been careful enough to provide a certain degree of autonomy to them to have a say in their development pursuit. Nation states have realised that certain elements in the tribal “world view”, with respect to ecology, language, democracy, equality, property rights, etc., hold important lessons for human progress and sustainable development. Accordingly, the Fifth and Sixth Schedules, which are governed by Articles 244 (1) and (2) of the Constitution, provides certain rights to tribes in the northeast and across India.

    1. Creation of Scheduled Areas

    The Fifth Schedule had been also termed by the Mungekar Committee in 2009 for tribal development as a “Constitution within Constitution”. It allows for the creation of Scheduled Areas by the President of India. 

    4.1 Criteria for declaring an area as a Scheduled Area

    The First Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission, also known as the Dhebar Commission (1960-61) laid down the following criteria for declaring any area as a ‘Scheduled Area’ under the Fifth Schedule:

    • Preponderance of tribal population, which should not be less than 50 percent;
    • Compactness and reasonable size of the area; Underdeveloped nature of the area; and
    • Marked disparity in the economic standard of the people, as compared to the neighboring areas.

    More recently, a viable administrative entity such as a district, block or taluk, has been also identified as an important additional criteria.

    1. Mungekar Committee Report

    The Mungekar Committee Report on Standards of Administration and Governance in the Scheduled Areas submitted by the Standing Committee on Inter-Sectoral Issues relating to Tribal Development under the chairmanship of Dr. Bhalchandra Mungekar contains recommendations on a variety of issues. These include inter-alia reviving institutions of self governance, effective delivery mechanism, creation of critical infrastructure, Tribal Sub-plan, implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 and Governors Report. The report also contains recommendations on the role of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs and State Tribal Welfare Departments, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes and SCs & STs (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.

    5.1 Important Recommendations of Mungekar Committee in improving delivery mechanism

    • For ensuring effective delivery mechanism there is a strong need to resuscitate ITDPs by re-strengthening and revamping for being able to be the implementing agencies for the new proposed deal.
    • The process of planning from below should begin with ITDPs. It should move on to block unit in the form of a broad perspective along with annual plan exercise in not more than three years. This preliminary exercise should pave the way for a real process of planning from below for Scheduled Areas in the 12th Plan. Competent micro planning units should be established at State and also ITDP levels.
    • A single line administration should be established at the level of ITDPs with a clear chain of command and specific wide-band functional domain. While Panchayat Raj institutions at the District/intermediate level should have decision-making powers in relevant areas, implementation should be the exclusive domain of administration. On the other hand, the domain of Gram Sabha should remain non-violable with administration playing a supportive role.
    • At the District level, all TSP funds flowing to the Scheduled Areas should be through the ITDPs. Since the flow of funds at the district level for Scheduled Areas is in many cases likely to exceed Rs. 200 crore annually, an officer equal in rank and experience to that of the CEO (ZP) or Project Officer (DRDA) should be provided with a fixed tenure as the District Tribal Welfare Officer or Project Director ITDP.
    • At least for Tribal majority districts such district level officer should be selected by an Expert Committee headed by the Chief Secretary of the State Government. The district level office should be appropriately strengthened and the strength should be reviewed once in 5 years.
    • At the Block level, in Scheduled Areas, monitoring units should be created with modern office and communication facilities under the District Officer in charge of Tribal Affairs. As far as TSP funds are concerned, BDOs should be answerable to the Project Director of the ITDP

    5.2 The Programme on Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) under Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) is being implemented since the Fifth Five Year Plan with specific objectives of reducing poverty, improving educational status an eliminating exploitation of the tribal families. 

    5.3 Powers of Governor under Fifth Schedule

    • Under Paragraph 4 - Governor has rule-making powers with regard to the number of members, mode of appointment, and functioning of the Tribes Advisory Council (TAC). The TAC renders advice to him when called upon by the Governor.
    • Paragraph 5(1) - gives the Governor the power to restrict the application of any Central or State legislation to the Scheduled Area, either completely, or subject to exceptions and modifications. It has been held by the Supreme Court that the power to make exceptions and modifications includes the power to amend these laws.

    Para 5. Law applicable to Scheduled Areas – (Fifth Schedule)

    (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the Governor may by public notification direct that any particular Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall not apply to a Scheduled Area or any part thereof in the State or shall apply to a Scheduled Area or any part thereof in the State subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification and any direction given under this sub-paragraph may be given so as to have retrospective effect.

    (2) The Governor may make regulations for the peace and good government of any area in a State which is for the time being a Scheduled Area.

    In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may—

    1. prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area;
    2. regulate the allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area;
    3. regulate the carrying on of business as money-lender by persons who lend money to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area.

    (3) In making any such regulation as is referred to in sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph, the Governor may repeal or amend any Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State or any existing law which is for the time being applicable to the area in question.

    (4) All regulations made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the President and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect.

    (5) No regulation shall be made under this paragraph unless the Governor  making the regulation has, in the case where there is a Tribes Advisory Council for the State, consulted such Council.

    1. Tribal Sub-Plan
    • Purpose - Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) strategy was initially developed by an Expert Committee set up by the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare in 1972 under the Chairmanship of Prof. S.C. Dube for the rapid socio-economic development of tribal people and was adopted for the first time in the Fifth Five Year Plan.
    • Existence - Tribal Sub-Plan came into existence in 1974-75 as a strategy for the development of areas having tribal concentration.
    • TSP Renamed - After merger of Plan and Non-Plan, the TSP was renamed as Scheduled Tribe Component (STC) by Ministry of Finance. 41 Central Ministries/Departments have been identified for earmarking of STC.
    • Financial Grant under Article 275(1) by Ministry of Tribal Affairs
    • Tribal Population more than 60% - TSP scheme is not applicable to the states/UT where tribal population exceeds 60% as the Annual Plan in these States/UTs is itself a Tribal Plan.
    • Role of State Government - State Governments are supposed to earmark Tribal Sub-Plan funds in proportion to ST population (as per Census 2011) in the State with respect to total State Plan.
    • Monitoring of TSP - The monitoring of TSP plan was being done by erstwhile Planning Commission till 2017-18, it was only in FY 2018-19, the monitoring of STC plan was given to Ministry of Tribal Affairs.          
    • Basic Objective of Schedule Tribe Component - channelize/monitor the flow of outlays and benefits from the general sectors in the Central Ministries/Departments for the development of Schedules Tribes at least in proportion to their population.     
    • Benefits of TSP/STC Strategy for Tribal Population –
    • Infrastructural development
    • Creating livelihood opportunities
    • Reducing poverty and unemployment
    • Raising nutritional levels
    • Improving literacy and health
    • Improving sanitation, provision of clean drinking water, housing

    Concerns on Tribal Sub-Plan

    • The Public Accounts Committee chaired by Mr. Mallikarjun Kharge had submitted its report on ‘Tribal Sub-Plan’ in December 2017.  
    • The Committee noted several discrepancies in the implementation of the TSP, including:
    • non-adoption of specific norms for release of funds,
    • weak programme management,
    • deficient monitoring system, and
    • non-implementation of information programmes. 

    Suggestions Made by the Committee

    • Categorising Funds under Separate Head for Clear Demarcation –The Committee recommended that strict adherence to earmarking of funds into a separate head at every level (districts, block, panchayat) should be made mandatory for release of funds. 
    • Tracking of Funds necessary – A more proactive approach needs be taken to keep track of monitoring, fund utilisation, and implementation of schemes for tribal development.
    • Non-lapsable pool for TSP fund - The Committee observed that presently, funds at the end of the financial year were not being transferred into a non-lapsable pool of TSP fund that could be utilised later. Thus, the committee recommended for: (i) optimal utilisation of TSP funds; and (ii) creation of a non-lapsable pool to utilise unused funds in the previous year.
    • Need for Central Nodal Unit for Review - to be set up under Ministry of Tribal Affairs to oversee the implementation of flow of fund under TSP, facilitate better co-ordination and efficient implementation of TSP through an online monitoring system.
    • Nodal Units to be set up at state/district level – as suggested by NITI Aayog for programme monitoring, to indicate state-specific allocation and release for STs separately under centrally sponsored schemes and central sector schemes.
    • Dedicated Nodal Units by all TSP ministries or departments - for effective monitoring of TSP at the implementation stage.
    • Involvement of Local Tribal Community to strengthen the planning process - inputs/ suggestions of local tribal community should be sought before finalising the plan for implementation of any programme under TSP.
    1. The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA)
    • Article 243M of the Constitution, while exempting the Fifth Schedule areas from Part IX of the Constitution (Panchayats), provides that Parliament may by law extend its provisions to the Scheduled and Tribal Areas subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in such law and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment to the Constitution.
    • On the basis of the report of the Bhuria Committee submitted in 1995, the Parliament enacted The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA) to extend Part IX of the Constitution with certain modifications and exceptions to the Scheduled V areas.
    • At present Scheduled V areas exist in 10 States viz. Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and Telangana. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj is the nodal Ministry for implementation of the provisions of PESA in the States.
    • Election to PRI - All posts of Chairpersons of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in the areas covered under PESA are reserved for tribal community and only persons belonging to tribal community can contest for these posts.             

    Following three types of powers have been given to a Gram Sabha under PESA:

    1. Developmental: consultation before land acquisition, prevent land alienation, power to enforce prohibition, prior approval of all developmental projects and control over tribal sub-plan, power to issue utilization certificate for developmental expenditure, selection of beneficiaries of poverty alleviation and other schemes of individual benefits, control over institutions and functionaries of social sectors.
    2. Dispute resolution as per traditional laws and customs: collective resolution of disputes on the basis of customs, traditional laws and religious beliefs of tribal areas.
    3. Ownership and management of natural resources: maintaining ownership of local tribal community over water resources, common lands, minor forest produce, minor minerals, etc. as well as effective implementation and monitoring of related laws.

    Other Important Powers Given to Gram Sabha/PRIs under PESA Act:

    1. Safeguard and preserve the traditions and customs of the people, their cultural identity, community resources and the customary mode of dispute resolution.
    2. Approve plans, programmes and projects for social and economic development before such plans, programmes and projects are taken up for implementation by the Panchayat at the village level.
    3. Identification or selection of beneficiaries under the poverty alleviation and other programmes.
    4. Certification of utilisation of funds by the Panchayat for the plans, programmes and projects.
    5. Right to be consulted before acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas for development projects and before re-settling or rehabilitating persons affected by such projects in the Scheduled Areas.
    6. Right to plan and manage minor water bodies in the Scheduled Areas.
    7. Prior Recommendations to grant prospecting licence for mining minor minerals including auction of minor minerals in the Scheduled Areas.
    8. Enforce prohibition or Regulate or Restrict the sale and consumption of any intoxicant.
    9. Grant ownership of minor forest produce.
    10. Prevent alienation of land in the Scheduled Areas and restore any unlawfully alienated land of a Scheduled Tribe.
    11. Manage village markets.
    12. Exercise control over money lending to the Scheduled Tribes, institutions and functionaries in all social sectors and plans for sub-tribes.

    Importance/Benefit of PESA

    • Effective implementation of PESA will bring development & deepen democracy in Fifth Schedule Areas.
    • Enhance people’s participation in decision making.
    • Better control over the utilisation of public resources for tribals and forest dwellers.
    • Reduce alienation of land in tribal areas.
    • Reduce poverty and out-migration among tribal population as they will have control and management of natural resources which will help in improving their livelihoods and incomes.
    • Minimise exploitation of tribal population as they will be able to control and manage money lending, consumption & sale of liquor and also sell their produce in village markets.
    • Promote cultural heritage through preservation of traditions, customs and cultural identity of tribal population.

    Xaxa Committee’s Recommendations for effective implementation of PESA Act

    • Promote small sized water-harvesting structures instead for large dams.
    • Impose penalties on officials, if delayed implementation of Forest Rights Act or PESA.
    • Prevent all kinds of tribal land alienation by making Gram Sabha’s consent compulsory for any type of land acquisition, even if the government wants land for its own use.
    • Earlier Vijay Kelkar Committee suggested that unused Government land should be sold off/leased off to get more money and reduce fiscal deficit. Xaxa Committee asked Government to use such land for tribal-resettlement.
    • After mines are exhausted, return the land back to original owner.
    • In Scheduled Areas, permit only tribals to exploit mineral resources. Policy makers should learn lessons from Niyamagiri episode.
    • Appoint a judicial commission to investigate such “naxal cases” registered against tribals and their (non-tribal) supporters.
    • Avoid making SalwaJudum like policies to combat left wing extremism.


    UPSC Current Affairs:Global Climate Risk Index | Page 7

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Environment | Mains: GS Paper-III - Environment

    Sub Theme: Global Climate Risk Index | National Disaster Management Information System | UPSC 

    Recent discussions around climate risk assessment and management have been based on the “Global Climate Risk Index” (GCRI), published annually by GermanWatch, a non-profit organisation. The latest version of the GCRI, published in January 2021, ranked 180 countries based on the impact of extreme weather events and associated socio-economic data from 2000-2019.

    GCRI, published in January 2021, ranked 180 countries based on the impact of extreme weather events and associated socio-economic data from 2000-2019. According to the publishing agency, the rankings are meant to forewarn countries about the possibility of more frequent and/or severe climate-related events in the future. 

    GCRI ranks countries based on four key indicators

    1. Number of deaths
    2. Number of deaths per 1,00,000 inhabitants
    3. Sum of losses in Purchasing Power Parity (in U.S. dollars); and
    4. Losses per unit of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

    Of these indicators, two are absolute while the other two are relative.

    Problems with CRI

    1. CRI report does not provide a rationale for the selection of these macro indicators.
    2. The index suffers from exclusion errors and selection bias. Number of key micro indicators (instead of macro indicators which measure loss because isolating the effect of the loss of elements on GDP is fraught with errors) such as the total number of people injured, loss of livestock, loss of public and private infrastructure, crop loss and others are better candidates for assessing the composite loss resulting from climate change events. 
    3. The index accounts for information on weather-related events like storms, floods, temperature extremes and mass movements. However, it omits geological incidents like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis, which may be potentially triggered by climate change and can have economic and humanitarian impact.
    4. The ranking under the GCRI is done based on data collected by Munich Re’s NatCatService, which is not validated at the ground-level. 

    India’s NDMIS

    • The National Disaster Management Information System (NDMIS) is a comprehensive online application, being developed to capture disaster damages and the losses effectively and also for monitoring of funds disbursal under State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) and National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) to States for relief activities in case of disasters. The online System will track the impacts of hazards for the entire country upto district level.
    • The online system has two components. The first component is for reporting the data related to State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF) and National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) from the districts to state, and from state to centre. This will improve data transparency, data availability, data authenticity and data consolidation at central level related to the allotment and utilisation of SDRF and NDRF. This module has already been launched and is in use by the states.
    • The second component is for capturing disaster damage and losses and also for monitoring the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) target A to D. Under this component, parameters such as death, injury, affected population by categories, economic losses in sectors such as education, health, housing, agriculture, industries, critical infrastructure such as roads, bridges and building, cultural heritages etc. will be captured. The data will be disaggregated by geographical, administrative unit, gender, disability and by the type of Disasters. The state and their respective districts will be responsible to enter the data of their local disasters. This module will be used by states for daily disaster reporting i.e. for the daily situation reporting. Besides this will enable to monitor the national implementation progress of the Sendai Framework for DRR (Targets A to D).


    • The Sendai Framework works hand in hand with the other 2030 Agenda agreements, including The Paris Agreement on Climate Change, The Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the New Urban Agenda, and ultimately the Sustainable Development Goals.
    • It was endorsed by the UN General Assembly following the 2015 Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and advocates for:
    • The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries.
    • It recognizes that the State has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders.
    • The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) was the global blueprint for disaster risk reduction efforts between 2005 and 2015
    • Taking into account the experience gained through the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, and in pursuance of the expected outcome and goal, there is a need for focused action within and across sectors by States at local, national, regional and global levels in the following four priority areas:
    • Priority 1: Understanding disaster risk.
    • Priority 2: Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk.
    • Priority 3: Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience.
    • Priority 4: Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

    Why is India’s NDMIS better than GCRI?

    • National Disaster Management Information System (NDMIS) captures damages and losses caused by disasters and monitors the targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
    • The NDMIS captures details on parameters like death, injury, affected population by categories as well as economic losses in social and infrastructure sectors due to weather and geological events on a daily basis.
    • The data captured by the NDMIS includes all major climatic events. Deploying effective approaches and principles to foster collaboration among climate risk information users and providers, along with enabling the implementation of effective management actions, will allow India to leapfrog on the targets envisaged in the Sendai Framework.


    UPSC Current Affairs:SEBI unveils investor charter| Page 12.

    UPSC Syllabus: Prelims: Governance | Mains: GS Paper-II - Governance

    Sub Theme: Investor Charter | Rights Issues | UPSC 

    VISION - To  protect  the  interests  of  investors  by  enabling  them  to  understand  the  risks  involved  and  invest  in  a  fair, transparent, secure market, and to get services in a timely and efficient manner.


    • To have streamlined procedures to ensure ease of transacting/ investing in securities market for investors.
    • To ensure that SEBI registered intermediaries / regulated entities adhere to their investor charters, including grievance redressal mechanism.
    • To enable investors to understand risks involved before investing.
    • To ensure fair and equitable treatment to investors.
    • To analyse the causes of investor grievances on a periodic basis and make appropriate policy amendments, if required.
    • To provide for alternative  dispute  resolution  mechanism  in  agreements  between  investors  and  MIIs/ Intermediaries.
    • To encourage innovative and digital solutions in securities market.

    INVESTORs have RIGHT to:

    • Get fair and equitable treatment.
    • Expect redressal of investor grievances filed in SCORES in a time bound manner.
    • Get quality   services   from   SEBI   recognised   Market   Infrastructure   Institutions   and   SEBI registered intermediaries / regulated entities/ Asset Management Companies.


    • Deal with SEBI recognised Market Infrastructure Institutions and SEBI registered intermediaries / regulated entities only.
    • Update their contact details like address, mobile number, email address, nomination, etc. and other key KYC details in case of any change.
    • Ensure that grievances are taken up with the concerned entities within time limits prescribed.
    • Ensure that their accounts are operated only for their own benefit.

    DO’s for Investors:

    • Read and understand the documents carefully before investing.
    • Know about the Investor Grievance Redressal Mechanism.
    • Know the risks involved before investing.
    • Keep track  of  account  statements  and  promptly  bring  any  discrepancy  noticed  to  the  concerned stock exchange, intermediary or Asset Management Company.
    • Know about various fees, charges, margins, premium, etc. involved in the transactions.
    • Preserve relevant transaction related documents

    DONT’s for Investors:

    • Don’t make payments in cash while making any investment in securities market, beyond the prescribed limit.
    • Don’t share your critical information like account details, login ids, passwords, DIS, etc. with anyone.